The collection of lectures



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ìàúðóçà ìàòíëàðè ò¢ïëàìè






1. Purpose and functions of the subject.Main points and definition.

 2. Explanation of danger.

 3. Taxonomy, nomenclature, qualification and identification of danger.

4. Definition of risk. Accepted risk concepts.


Literatures: 1,7,8,12,13,16,18,21,24,29,31,32,33,43,62,67

Study-Visual materials:Slides   ¹ 1,2,3.

Necessary concepts: life activity safety, living environment, homosphera, noksosphere, dangerous factors, safety, real and hidden risks, nomenclature of the risk, qualification, identification, risk taking, evaluating by number, reasoning, consequence.


1. 1. Purpose and functions of the subject. Main points and definition

Life action security – refers to real possibility sidestepping from real risks which can directly affect to life of human, its health and its genus.

Life action refers to humanity’s main living process, in other words daily working and resting actions of human being in order to satisfy their interest. In order to satisfy material and spiritual needs of human, they change their living place, environment in lifetime. That is why; “Life activity safety” subject will learn relationship and affects between human organism and its covering environment. It is clear that people can perform its commotion by natural, economic, production, city atmosphere and state of emergency activities. It doesn’t matter in which field people will satisfy their needs; nevertheless they will face mutual resistance with nature. That is why life activity of human is divided in two types:

1.  To reach to certain effective determinations, interest in lifespan;

2.  To provide safe and harmless activity, in other words to pretend all unkind accidents which happens in life period;

An unkind accident refers to making injuries to the human health. We call danger any kind of situation which may affect to the human life during the living age. With the affection of the danger, human health may be damaged and life of that people is under the danger and normal function of organism will become worse. In the functioning time potential risks may appear under certain circumstances and they are called reasons of unkind accidents.

Reasons of unkind accidents are:

Ø Technic-technologic;

Ø Organizational;

Ø Hygienic;

Ø Psychophysiological

Any activity of human is considered as potentially dangerous. At the same time level of the danger and risk can be controlled. Control of danger confirms the existence of the accepted risk concepts. This concept proofs that there is not absolute safety in any action in any condition.

Safety – the pretended or limited level of danger incidences which can threat to the human health and life under certain potentiality.

Safety – one of the main determinations in the human functions.

Life safety – refers to collection of the ways, methods, and arrangements which leads to the life safety.  It is field of scientific study which learns dangers which threats to the environment and human, principles of creations and affection, methods of escaping from dangers, procedures of protection from dangers and fixing the negative results which caused from danger affects.

Life action security subject – as a subject learns collection of methods to protect human from techno spherical and anthropogenic dangers and creation comforts for human life.

Life action security – subject learns relief and mutual relationship between human and techno sphere.

To create comfort and safe life function for human being requires solving following questions:

1.  Identification of danger, danger resources, evaluating and analyzing the acting reasons.

2.  To avoid from dangers through financial effective ways, or settle ways to avoid harmful factors.

3.   To settle methods to avoid from dangerous and harmful effects of factors and protecting from existing risks.

4.  To create comfort positions of living environment.

The main directions of practical functions of life activity safety consists of to avoid from unkind accidents reasons and to avoid from creation of dangerous situations.

«Life action security »subject is learned by dividing into main four individual parts.

1.  Theoretical bases of Life activity safety;

2.  Life activity safety in production;

3.  Life activity safety in state of emergency;

4.  Natural bases of life activity safety and ecology;

Main meanings and definitions:

 Function – mutual effecting process between human, nature and anthropogenic environment in order to reach economical effectiveness.

 Danger – negative properties which lead to unfortunate, unkind and harmful effects of alive or dead build to the human health, nature, material wealth.

Safety – non-effective maximal limit of information, energy, materials, different kind of substances which may affect to the object. Danger is considered as real when it is affected to certain type of object.

Objects which are protected from danger may include any component in environment, such as: people, society, government, organization, (company, and corporation), nature, cosmos and etc.

Living (activity) environment – refers to environment which is characterized with dangerous factors which can affect to the human life, its function, health and genus by direct or indirect way.

Dangerous factors – can be in physical, chemical, biological, psychophysiological and social character.

Biosphere – human living part of the earth which includes lithosphere (surface of the earth), hydrosphere (part of the earth which is covered with water), troposphere (down side of atmosphere). Biosphere is divided into techno sphere, territory, production environment, economic environment and other objects because of human’s variable life activity.

Techno sphere – part of biosphere (city territory, production environment) which is changed by different technic tools of human in order to be adequate to human’s material and social-economic interests.

Territory – limit of common natural and production character of biosphere and techno sphere.

Natural environment – refers to collection of objects and natural condition which certain subject can survive in it.

Social environment – environment which is created by human in order to meet its needs, increase experience and knowledge, and exchange them between societies.

Production environment – refers to the area which human performs his operational activity. Production environment of human can be in comfort, allowed, dangerous and emergency state positions.

Comfortable environment – refers to type of life activity in which human life and health are guaranteed, working capability is fully provided, negatively affected factors are escaped.

Allowed environment – refers to environment in which wholly presentation of human’s working capability is limited, leads to non-effectiveness of working process, but dangerous and harmful factors in working process level is controlled.

Dangerous environment – in this environment production factors affects negatively to human health and leads to long affecting diseases or negative changes of environment.

Emergency state environment – affecting factors leads to different injuries or unkind accidents and danger of violation of environment in short time.

Noksosphere – refers to area in which usual or temporary danger occurs or exists. In noksosphere area amount of dangerous or harmful factors will be more than allowed.


Homosphera – refers to environment, place or area which human will be performing its activity processes.


1.2. Definition of danger, Taxonomy, nomenclature

Qualification and identification of danger

Danger refers to any type of effects which negatively affects to the human health, working process, nature, and to the material wealth.

According to the creation, dangers are divided into four categories:

1.  Natural dangers.

2.  Anthropological dangers.

3.  Techno dangers.

4.  Social dangers.

Natural dangers – types of dangers forms from natural disasters in biosphere. Natural disasters consists of earthquakes, volcano (enormous waves formed from earthquake under ocean or from volcano), tsunami, storms, forest firing, snow movements, droughts, long term raining, great cold, epidemics, highly contribution of forest and village insects. Their main features are defined with sudden occurrence and depend on weather conditions and location reliefs. It is paramount important to say that great cold, hot, fog don’t have a big impact to the natural electro magnet area and have no enormous affect to the human health and that is why it doesn’t require to pay much attention as an object of subject. Natural disasters are divided into litospherical, hydrospherical (erosion of water, increase level of water, flow of tsunami), atmospherically (heavy snow and rain), cosmic (radiation of the sun) dangers.

Anthropogenic dangers – refers to accidents which threat to the human life, world of plants and animals and to the natural environment by anthropogenic factors caused to quality change of biosphere, formed by human’s economic activity. Such kind of dangers have affect to the human life and health, at the same time to the natural environment correspondingly. From this point of view the can be called as ecological dangers as well.

Such ecologic changes cause many anthropogenic threats to our environment. These threats include intensively degradation of soil and pollution of soil due to heavy metals (like that cadmium, chrome and etc.) are under the soil, pollution of the atmosphere by the chemical effects like noise, electric magnet area, and ION radiation. Also, acid rain, tearing of ozone layer, water pollution, and it also includes other threats that may negatively influence on human beings. This kind of environmental threats and its causes and solution are widely explored mostly in the field of Ecology and Natural cases that human being feels needed to be secured.

Technogenic dangers - This type of danger happens due to the invention of human and the process of creating by human. People are cause of such threats as they create manyines and technologies, build buildings like factors that actually bring benefits but it brings some portion of dangers as well. The more consumption of the energy and bigger size of human invention more dangerous in their life. Nowadays, majority of human processes require the use of such technologies which create technogenic threats. The level of technogenic threats is measured according to certain characteristics  of technology usage and this is usually widely explored in the science of "The security of human being in the process of manufacturing" in order to reduce such dangers.

Social - include different actions, affects, and attacks to human that may result in creation of threat to human life and health. In nature, this threat is categorized into different groups and first type is when human is morally affected by such actions like intimidation, fault, thief and etc. Second type is physical violence like penetration, banditry, terror, forcing, hostage taking, losing the status and etc. Third type is diseases like AIDS, skin diseases and etc. Also, actions negatively affect in human organism caused by consumption of alcohol, cigarette, and drugs. Last category is suicide.

Threats according to age - It is believed, child, teenage, woman, and old man usually do not face with the same danger as human in other age category.

Origin of threat - The danger happens unexpectedly or in planned way.Size of threat in terms of are: dangers may be locally, regionally, or globally.

Social threats usually happen due to social-economic intentions. These kinds of dangers affect the relationship of government with its citizens and also become barrier for the development of relationships between countries.

All types of threats are categorized into potential or real groups. In potential threats the traces of the danger are invisible as human sensitivity organs does not catch or feel that moment of coming danger. While real threats are inevitable from look and so recognized by everyone.


1.3.           Taxonomy, nomenclature, quantification, and identification of danger

As the danger is difficult concept with many different signs, it plays an important role to make up its taxonomy to provide the security of person’s daily actions and to study in depth the nature of the danger.

Taxonomy of danger- is a systematization of danger according to its nature of origination (natural, technical, anthropogenic, ecologic, and mixed), type (real, potential), structure and formation (simple and derivative), degree of influence and character (active or inactive), consequences and its time (impulsive, cumulative), scope of spread, out coming damages, sphere of emerge (cultural, domestic, transport, production, military and etc.). Nevertheless, today there is no complete taxonomy worked out.  

Danger’s Nomenclature –list of terms and names regulated and systemized according their specific signs.

Nowadays there exists an alphabetically ordered nomenclature of danger. After the concrete surveys held on production manufactories, workplaces, and work procedures and of different professions, their nomenclature of danger is created.

Danger’s Quantification – give numeric characteristics to the difficult concepts used to assessing and determining the degree of the quality. 

There exist a numerical, scoring and other methods used on quantification. The most widely spread numerical assessing method “risk”, taking risk is going against the danger.

Numerical assessment – is a forecast of future dangers that has a potential probability of occurring in the near future based on practice, experience from the past. It has to be shown a classification of consequences when determining a risk.  

Identification of danger – process of determining the danger and its numeric and time indexes, as a result directed to provide preventive and operative measures for the safety of lives.

In the process of identification the nomenclature of danger, the probability of danger emergence, its coordinates, expected damage and other parameters are identified. The results are used to prevent from dangers, to reduce level of influence to a person, to bring danger’s level to the allowed norms and to take necessary actions.          


            1.4. Concept of risk taking. Correct risk taking concept.

Risking – is going against danger.

Risk taking – frequency of danger emergence, or the method of numeric assessment of danger.

Numeric assessment – probability of consequences that took part between some periods of time in the past.

Here, n –number of lost workers in one year;

         N – Number of overall employees.

The determination process of riskiness is very probable; it can be divided into the next four methods.

µ Engineering method – this method is based on static information, calculation of danger frequency, analyzing the security with probability, and on building a danger’s tree;

µ Modeling – on this method the model of factors is created for an individual, group of people, and etc;

µ Expert – means that the probability of occurrence of different situations is defined based on experts’ ideas, thoughts.

µ Sociological – on this method the probability of occurrence of situations is defined based on opinions of local people.

The methods above show the different aspects of risk takings. So, it is more appropriate to practice them complexly.

Appropriate risk taking concept – to recognize that it is not absolutely safe during person’s actions simply means that it is impossible to create that safe condition. It is known that any of actions of a person has a potential threat. A man, during his operations can create technics and develop technologies within it to reduce workforce, increase productivity. But these new technologies bring new types of threats. For example, it is common situation to see the replacement of mechanic equipment to the computerized, programmable robotic manyines. If the threats of mechanic equipment are the rotation, loud sound, air pollution; the threats of programmable manyines are radiation, reduced mental reliance are the main. A practice of appropriate risk concepts, use of methods of actions security provision and their production and financing creates a chance to choose management methods.  


Review questions:

1)   The main purpose of a subject “Life action security”

2)   The main parts of the subject, what questions are discussed?

3)   In relation with what subjects this one is learned?

4)   What are the concepts and definitions comprised of?

5)   What are the danger and the security?

6)   What types of danger exist?

7)   How differentiated the natural, anthropogenic dangers?

8)   What means the risk taking?

9)   Is it possible to create the absolute secure work condition?

10)       What methods exist to define the risk?






1. System analysis of safety

2. Stages and styles of analyzing safety

3. Principles and styles of supplying activation of safety

4. Styles of analyzing emergency 

5. Managing of safety activation



Study-visual materials: Slides ¹ 4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12.

Necessary concepts: system, system analysis, the tree “cause-danger-result”, “aprior”, “aposterior”, gomosphery, noksosphery, principle, style, means, cycle life step, decomposition.


                            2.1.Concept about system analyzing of safety

         The main purpose of system analysis of safety is to define the causes of emergency and to organize events correctly and economicly that settled these causes.

         Any activation of a person carries out in a certain system. For example, “Person-transport-Environment”. There are features characters of all elements which organized this system. If any element of this system doesn’t do its own task to achieve result, for example, “Operator-computer-electricity” organized one system. If there is not any element of this system, the work won’t be done. Each element of the system has its own task and also the whole system has an individual task. When the system is analysed at first it is learnt the causes of emergency in each element. For example, in this “ergatic” system a person manages a computer, controls processes and gives commands proper a computer. In this process an operator must have enough practice to manage this technological process and also, must know perfectly working safely with computer. And so, at first it is demanded to teach an operator the rules of managing safely these technical vehicles, the styles of protecting from these dangerous and harmful factors and to examine the knowledge of an operator a computer does the task which given by an operator. For this, the main indicators of the computer must fit with the in indicators of the technological process. There must have enough quantity degree that is permitted the harmful and dangerous factors on the computer. Electricity supplies the whole system with energy.

         It is demanded to set safely electricity for the life of a person, to work protective measures for an operator from electricity.

         After defining the causes of emergency in each element, it is analysed what danger may be happened as a result of these causes. Then it is defined the result of the danger, the tree (table) “Cause – Danger – Result” is made. It is worked measures plan for settling emergency situations according to the analysis of the table.


2.2. Stages and styles of analysing safety

It is recommended to do stage by stage learning and analysing logically danger

         The first stage.Analysing danger firstly:

Ø  To define the sources of danger;

Ø  To define the parts of the system that caused danger;

Ø  To set certain borders in analysing that as to define danger which is not learnt.

The second stage – to define the stages of happening danger, to build the tree of “Cause – Danger – Result”.

The third stage.Toanalyse  result.

The first and the second stages of learning danger are carried out before the beginning the progress of activation and serviced to supply safety. The third stage is used for working measures that shorten numbers of emergency and to supply safety in the future.

The system of safety is two types, it may be analysed according to the styles of “aprior” (correct) and “aposterior” (incorrect).

         “Aprior” style.In this style a learner defines potential danger for the system that beanalysed and learns the stages of another danger which is resulted according to this danger or defines the types of causes and states that caused by danger. This style is done according to analyzing logically before not carrying the activation out.

         “Aposterior” style.This style is done after carrying activation out that as after happening event. In this style it is defined the causes emergency according to the print of it, it is analysed and it is created measures to them and also it is made recommendation for the work must be done in the future.

         One of the main problems in analysing safety is to define the task of the system and to work the main indicators of it correctly. If the system and the elements are not done wholly and it analysed in short time, dangers, factors of some elements won’t be defined and as a result there may be different emergency situations. And also, if the elements of the system are analysed widely, there are may be different confusion and uncertainties in conclusion, all economical, technical, organized events that is created according to the analysis must settle all danger in this system and supply to settle emergency situations.


2.3. Principles, methods and facility of the provision to safety

The Principle - an idea, thought the main position. Concrete implementation of law and theory norms.

         The Method - a way, way of the achievement to purposes.

The Facilities of the provision to safety - a concrete realization principle and methods, t.e. constructive, organizing and material entailment on provision of safety. We shall Consider these features in more detail.

          Principles. Security guidelines are classified according to several groups: orienting (categorization, systematization and other.),technical (blocking, weak section, screening, strengthen and other.),organizational (train, transition from coaching, special set of clothes, work and mode rest, use from spare and others)and management (control, responsiblity, stimulated  and others).

For example:

          Principle of the standartization - consists in regulation of the conditions, which observance provides necessary level to safety (for example, PDK – a limit to possible concentration bad material in ambience, level of the radiations, influences by magnetic flap and other).

          The principle weak section - is concluded in scheduled destruction one of the section mechanism in the event of their overloading (for example, fusible fuzes, keys, dowels, preventative muffs);

         The principle to information - is concluded in issue and assimilation by personnel of the information, providing necessary level to safety (for example, briefing, education, warning signs, signalizing);

         The principle to categorizations - is directed on distribution dangerous and bad factor on determined sign that allows doing the motivated forecasts comparatively unknown factor regularities. For example, sanitary - defensive zone (5 it be divided on 5 classes), categories building (A,B,V,G,D,Y), fireman zone and others.

         Styles.Exists three main methods on provision of safety

Ø À- a method of division “homosphere” and “nokospherein space or at time. This method is realized following facility:

*     a fence mechanism, provision to inaccessibility in dangerous zone, use blocking and safeguards;

*     encapsulating the equipment and equipments;

*     heat insulating the warmed surfaces or using the meanses of protection from radiant heat;

*     transition to technology and equipment with çàìêíóòûì by cycle of the motion fluid and gaseous material;

*     undertaking the periodic technical maintenance and checking the technical condition of the equipment on correspondence to to requirements to safe usage;

*      ensuring the functional diagnostics of the condition of the equipment in process of the work;

*      use the remote control technological process and equipment;

*      draft on funds automations and software-controlled tool;

*          userobot.

Ø The method, consisting in normalizations noksosfery, (nokosphere) by exceptions to dangers. The following facility is Reached:

*      use screen, air-cushion, absorbers, filter for protection from noise, dust, vibrations, radiations, electromagnetic flap and t. d.;

*          change bad material harmless;

*          change the dry ways of the transportation and processing blazing material wet;

*     change the technological processes, in accordance with arising the noise, vibrations and other dangerous and bad factor, process, where these factors are absent or have an unessential intensity;

*     organization full catchings or peelings technological surge and unset.

Ø The method, including range acceptance and facilities, directed on adapting the person to corresponding to ambience and increasing their security.


*     organism, the general physical culture;

*     education, reception of the briefing on separate types of the work;

*     psychological preparation to perception of the dangers and rework practical skill and rates of the behave our in extreme condition;

*     use the individual means’s of protection, overalls, gas mask, instrument with insulated handle, measuring facilities and instrument.


        Means. Means to ensure the safety, divided into a mass protection (SMZ) and personal protection equipment ( PPE). In turn SMZ and PPE, depending on the nature of the hazard, the order of steps, the method of application and other indicators are divided into several groups


2.4. Methods of study and causes of accidents

If an industrial accident will cause incapacitation employee for 1 day or more, or would cause change jobs, it is necessary to draw up a statement of form H -1. This act together with the inspection materials must be stored 45 years in the management of the enterprise, where the  accident occurred.

Accidents that caused serious injury or death of a group of people are checked separately. In the event of such an accident, Head shall notify the parent bodies, the technical inspector for Occupational Safety and local prosecutor's office.

Level accident is determined by the results of impartial verification of their causes and severity receipt injuries. The indicators characterizing the injury rate , resulting in the production include the following


Factor of the frequency traumatism- Ê÷

                                       Ê÷ =   (n1 /nó) 1000

n1number workman, forfeited capacity to work and accident.


nóthe amount workman..


Factor to gravity traumatism -Êî

Êî = Äí/n2

Äí – Number of the working days lost for the accounting period;

n2– Number of the people who have lost working capacity.


Indicator of the lost working days -

ÊèêÄí / nu 100, %


The analysis of the reasons of the accident on production conduct for the reason productions action upon their removal and warning. For this are used monographic, topographical and statistical methods

The monographic method.Monographic method provides comprehensive analysis of the causes of injuries at the workplace. In this study the organization and working conditions, equipment, inventory and tools. This method is effective in the statistical analysis of occupational safety.

The statistical method of the analysis is founded on study of the quantitative factors report data about accident on enterprise and in organization. Here with factors of the frequency and gravity injury rate are used basically.

At a static method the ministry and in the general Republican volume is widely investigated unfortunate a case in scale to areas, areas. It studies and investigates static readout about extreme situations of workers making communities and establishments a speciality of workers an age, sex the experience of work and them distributes.

         The topographical analysis method allows you to set the place the most frequent injuries. To this end, the plan diagram enterprise where designated jobs and equipment, note the number of accidents during the analyzed period. This allows you to devote more attend mania improvement of working conditions in the workplace, where most often more accidents happen.

The economic method is studied level of the influence of the prepared facilities and material for provision of safety to activity for lesseningaccidents and their economic consequences.


2.5. Security management activities.

Security management life - a translation of the object of a dangerous situation in a relatively safe through the impact on the system «man - manyine - environment» (or its constituent elements) by organizational, technology - technological, sanitary measures, in order to achieve targeted and guaranteed results. In life safety management requires mandatory coincidence of economic and technical indicators, there are activities that are used for safety and must comply with economic parameters. Change ( modification ) of the individual elements of the system to ensure the security, must not affect the whole system , that is, each stage of the measures should not adversely affect the next stage and the result as a whole. For this reason, in the process safety management is recommended to take the entire system as a whole.

In the study of the interaction of all elements of the system «man - manyine - environment» is defined severity level of each item is made and decomposition activity

Decomposition method, compiled to determine the general state of activity, is widely used in the design of safety.

When life safety management are encouraged to adhere to the following principles:

ü the ultimate goal and stick to it ;

ü All problems are taken as a single system ;

ü Finds alternative ways of achieving the objectives and analyze them ;

ü Do not allow to influence the final result of phased actions.

Necessary that these principles are to meet such requirements as reality objectivity, relevance, efficiency and control.

Steps that should be taken into account in accordance with the safety standards should cover the entire period of activity:

Ø Scientific thought , idea ;

Ø Research - research ;

Ø Organization of design activities ;

Ø Design ;

Ø The project implementation in practice;

Ø Use, improvement ;

Ø Canning and completion.


Function security management life - is a gradual process consisting of the following


¨                Analysis and assessment of the state of the object;

¨                You need to plan in advance how to pursue and identify management tasks ;

¨                It is necessary to identify and organize a system of slave - head ;

¨                It is necessary to monitor and regularly review management organization ;

¨                Determine the effectiveness of interventions ;

¨                Organization of incentives.

      To ensure the safety of operations , use the following controls :

µ    Formation of culture and skills of safe operation ;

µ    Vocational training;

µ    The psychological impact on the subjects of management ;

µ    Use of media protection ( technical and organizational );

µ    The use of personal protective equipment ;

Organization of benefits and compensation. While ensuring safety of life should be considered scientific worldview, physiological, psychological, social, educational, ergonomic, environmental, medical, technical, organizational – operational, legal and economic requirements.


Control questions:

1. How is the systematic analysis of security?

2 .Explain the meaning: meaning "Reason - danger - result?»

3 .Through what steps carried out a systematic analysis?

4. Methods used to analyze the level of security?

5 .Variety and value principles to ensure safety.

6. Ways and means of ensuring safety.

7. What words meanGomosfery and nokosphere ?

8. Principles and stages of safety.

9. Give the concept of decomposition of action.

10. What is included in a security tool?

Topics for independent study

1. Logical processes in the system safety analysis.

2. Reliability of security equipment .

3 .Decomposition activity.

4 .Reliability of security equipment .






1.    Conseption of ergonomic.

2.    Gubranteed conformances of system activity.

3.    Psychology of activity safety.

4.    Psychological couses of accidents.


Curriculumvizual materials: slides ¹ 13, 14, 15.

         Necessary concepts:principle, method, means, differential approach, evacuation, defence structure, private defence means, medical preventive means, beforehand learning of, and document-plan.


3.1. Conseption of ergonomic.

Be familiar with basic shapes and physiological basics of employment rights.

Requirements for skills and knowledge

The student should know:

Ø classification of the main forms of employment;

Ø energy consumption during physical and mental labor;

Ø ways to reduce fatigue;

Ø types of work;

Ø Student should be able to: 

Ø To organize the work and rest.

µ Plan of presentation

µ Classification of the main forms of work.

µ Forms of mental labor.

µ Physiological basis of employment.

µ Factors severity and intensity of the labor process.


The key term.

Key word: work.

Labor - purposeful human activity to meet their cultural and socio-economic needs.

Secondary terms.

Ø Physical labor;

Ø Mental labor;

Ø Fatigue;

Ø Efficiency;

Ø working conditions;

Ø the types of work;

Ø basic ways to reduce fatigue.

Classification of the main forms of work

The following classification is generally accepted basic forms of work:

Work, requiring large muscle activity

Takes place in the absence of mechanical devices to work (labor steelworker, longshoreman, grower, etc.). Develops muscular system, stimulates the metabolic processes in the body, but at the same time socially efficient has low productivity, the need for longer stay.

Mechanized form of labor

Requires specialized knowledge and motor skills in the work included the small muscles of hands, feet, which provide speed and accuracy of movement. However, the monotony of simple steps, a small amount of perceived information leads to the monotony of work.

Labor associated with automatic and semi-automatic production

Disadvantages: monotony, increased the tempo and rhythm of work, lack of creativity, as the treatment of subjects involved in the mechanism, and the person performing simple maintenance manyines.

3.2. Gubranteedconformances of system activity

Conveyor work

Different crushing process operations specify the pace and rhythm, a strict sequence of operations. The main drawback -the monotony, leading to premature fatigue and rapid exuding nervous. With monotonous repetitive stimuli in cortical activity prevails braking process that leads to distraction, drop rate of reaction, rapid fatigue.

Work related to the management of the processes and mechanisms

Man acts as the operator, and the less automated process control, the greater the participation.


Perception and processing of large amounts of information to include memory, attention, and to activate the process of thinking.

Forms of mental work:

Operator - supervise the work of manyines characterized by a high responsibility and neuro-emotional stress.

Management (enterprise managers) characterized by a large increase in the amount of information with a shortage of time to process it, a big personal responsibility for their decisions, stress and conflict.

Creative work (researchers, teachers, writers, designers). Most complex form, as it requires a lot of memory, stress, attention. Leads to an increase in neuro-emotional stress, tachycardia, increased blood pressure, ECG changes and other shifts on the part of the autonomic functions.

Work of teachers and health workers - in constant contact with people, increased responsibility, the frequent lack of time and information to make the right decision, which leads to a high neuro-emotional stress.

Work students. Concentration is needed in memory, attention. Present stressful situations (exams, tests).

As you can see, the variety of forms of work boils down to two basic.

Relations Jobs - characterized by high load on the musculoskeletal system and functional systems (cardio - vascular, neuro - muscular, respiratory, etc.). Develops muscular system, stimulates the metabolism, but because of poor performance is not socially efficient. Its main index is the weight.

Energy consumption during physical labor, depending on the severity of work, makes 4000 - 6000 kcal per day.

Mental work unites the works related to the reception and transmission of information, requiring activation of thinking, attention, and memory.

This type of work is characterized by a significant decrease in motor activity (hypokinesia), which leads to cardio - vascular disease; prolonged mental load depresses the mind, impairs the function of attention, memory. The main indicator of mental work is the tension that reflects the load on the central nervous system.


Energy consumption during mental work up 2500 - 3000 kcal per day.

Brain weight of 2% of body weight, and it consumes energy (15 - 20) % of the total exchange in the body. 100 g of cortex consumes oxygen is 5 - 6 times more skeletal muscle than the same weight during physical exercise.

Daily consumption of energy during mental work increased by 48% for reading aloud while sitting; 90% at lectures; 90-100% for computer operators. Moreover, the brain tends to inertia, since after the termination of the mental process continues, mental ceases operation, which leads to fatigue and a greater depletion of the CNS than in manual labor.

Depending on the shape and form advantageously distinguish























3.3. Psychology of activity safety.


Based on the criteria of hygiene, working conditions are divided into three classes:

1.Optimal working conditions. Preserved not only the health of workers, but also creates the preconditions for maintaining high productivity. Thus for optimum accepted such conditions under which adverse factors do not exceed the levels accepted as safe for the population.

      2.  Acceptable working conditions. When these harmful effects do not exceed levels established for jobs, and possible changes in the functional state of the organism recovered at rest, and should not have adverse effects in the short and long term on the health status of workers and their offspring.

Classes 1 and 2 correspond to safe working conditions.

3.  Harmful working conditions under which occupational hazards exceeding health standards, has an adverse effect on the body works and its offspring.

4.  Unsafe working conditions. Exposure to harmful factors for change poses a threat to life, and there is a high risk of severe acute occupational injuries.
Physiological stress in the body of work some time after the beginning of the work causes fatigue symptoms: loss of human performance influenced by the work. Fatigue may be rapid, with very intensive work (work bricklayer, porter), or slow, with long monotonous work (work of the driver, the work on the assembly line).

Fatigue - a condition accompanied by a sense of fatigue, reduced performance, deterioration of quantitative and qualitative performance indicators.

Fatigue by their biological essence - a normal physiological process that performs a protective function in the body, protecting it from possible voltage and therefore damage. If a person wakes up on a background of a slowly evolving fatigue, it leads to fatigue, that is, to chronic fatigue, which is not lifted for a normal period of rest.

An important indicator of performance is the body that depends on the age, health, moral and materialincentives. During the working day it changes, with three periods (Figure 1.2.1)


Figure 1.2.1. Changing human performance during the working day

µ 1 — vrabatyvaniya period or entering the work (0.5 - 1.5 hours), has a low efficiency.

µ 2 — preservation period of sustained performance (2 - 2.5 hours).

µ 3 — period of declining health due to fatigue.

To reduce fatigue during labor and improve efficiency using the following effective methods: the rational organization of working time and place; rational mode of work and rest; industrial gymnastics; rooms psycho physiological unloading.

To maintain a high level of mental health at work must comply with certain conditions. Gradual entry into work after sleep or summer holiday provides a consistent inclusion of physiological mechanisms underlying the high level of efficiency. Observe a rhythm of work that contributes to the development of skills and slows the development of fatigue. Compliance with the usual consistency and systematic work provides a long-term preservation of the working dynamic stereotype. Regular alternation of mental work and rest, the alternation of mental work with physical prevents the development of fatigue, improves performance. High availability is preserved and systematic exercises in mental work. Good stay, not only for the eyes, but also for the brain, is closing his eyes for a few minutes, deep rhythmic breathing, moderate muscular load in the pauses, and long, restful sleep.

Factors severity and intensity of the labor process

In accordance with R.2.2 755-99, there are three classes of working conditions in terms of severity and intensity of labor.

*  Optimal (easy) work. Energy costs - up to 174 W.

*  Permitted work (moderate). Energy costs - from 175 to 290 W.

*  Harmful (hard) work. Energy costs - more than 290 W.

Physical severity of labor - is the load on the body during work requiring predominantly muscular effort and the corresponding energy security. Given the type of load and load the muscles physical work is divided into static and dynamic.


3.4. Psychological causes of accidents.

Static work is connected with the fixation instruments and objects of labor in a stationary state, the maintenance of the body or its parts in space (fixed working posture).

External muscle work out, but remains tense muscle condition, lasting indefinitely. This leads to a strong fatigue of the muscle, and with the lack of blood supply to a disease of the peripheral nervous and muscular systems. Example static work - hour on duty.

Dynamic work - the process of muscle contraction, leading to the displacement of the load, as well as of the human body or its parts in space.

When this energy is expended both in the body to maintain a certain tension in the muscles, and the mechanical effect of work. Dynamic work is divided into a total muscle work performed by more than 2/3 of the muscle skeletal muscles, including the legs and torso (loaders, agricultural workers); regional muscular work, which is performed muscles of the shoulder girdle and upper limbs; local muscular work involving less than 1/3 of skeletal muscle.

Intensity of work is characterized by emotional stress on the body during work requiring primarily of the brain to receive and process information. The easiest is considered mental work in which there is no need for decision-making. Such conditions are considered optimal. If the operator operates and makes decisions in a single statement, then such conditions are valid.

To tense harmful conditions 1 degree relates labor which involves the solution of problems by known algorithms. Creative activity that requires solving complex problems with no obvious solution algorithm should be attributed to hard work of 2nd degree.



Features the work of women and adolescents

When used in the production of women and adolescents need to consider the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the organism. During adolescence, there is an accelerated growth of bones and muscles, especially the limbs, and at the same time - the weakness of ligaments, muscles more fatigue, frequent deviations in the development of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. For those aged 16-18 years is set short - 36-hour - workweek. Limited employment of teenagers when moving heavy objects, and if the work is related to the transfer of loads, the load shall not exceed 4.1 kg. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of women in some cases, poor production environments can contribute to gynecological diseases and affect the state of women's reproductive function. For working women regulate and limit values for carrying cargo movement, introduced more favorable regimes of work and rest, restrict the employment of women at night, set the mode for their part-time or part-time working week. Maximum weight lifted and moved women cargo, provided the alternation of this work with other work up to 2 times per hour, is 10 kg, and with a constant lifting and moving heavy during the shift - 7 kg. Because a woman's body is particularly vulnerable during pregnancy, there is a need to transfer women some time to work not associated with adverse effects of heavy and hazardous working conditions.


Conclusions on

Study the functional state of the human body as a result of work allows to solve many problems related to the improvement of working conditions.

Questions for self-control

1.  Name and describe the two main types of work.

2. What energy mental and physical labor?

3. Describe static and dynamic work. Give examples.

4. What is fatigue, and what are the ways to reduce it?

5. What determines the capacity of man, and how it changes during the workday?

6. What rules must be followed in order to maintain high efficiency in mental work?

7. Which groups we can stay possible in FBs pressive?

8. What problem stays in short and long urgent?

9. In what enter on the safe at time was specify FBs chappen?

10.What is document plan and in what parts can stay?






1) Sanitation of manufacture tasks.

2) Prevention of being workaholic and own hygiene.

3) Microclimate of manufacturing rooms.

4) Enhancement of fresh air in the manufacture.

Literature:2,3,8,12,15,14,20,2135,36,51,59,60,66, 67

Curriculumvizual materials: slide ¹ 20, 21,22,23,24.


4.1 Sanitation of manufacature tasks

        Sanitation of manufacturing is based on protecting the staffs from negative affectsin which organized sanitation -hygienic, sanitation prophylactic, economic and social attitudes collection.

Production sanitation is basic tasks create healthy and harmless labour condition and prevent accidents, work a holic illnesses in the manufcture.

Labourconditiones -human health and atmosphere of producing and labour process factors which cause ability of crafting.

Hegienic classification follows it:

BD10263_ Optimal

BD10263_ Allowed

BD10263_ Poisonous

BD10263_ Extreme

In Optimal work condition deal whith maximal productivity and strain organism minimally.Atmosphere and labour is poisonous factor don't need to be extra in Evrylabourcondion.

In allowed work condition, atmosphere and labour factor is hygeniecstandartsmusn't being extra from permission. In poisonous condition the amount of demerit condition can be more and extra. Furthemore it causes reducing of human healt or effect negative consequences to human breed.                                      

Extreme labour condition cause serious illness at the time of working or risk to human life.

Mankind organism in manufacture is assessed by labour place and its field. Workplace-where employer or organization supervises employer directly and indirectly.Work field-a place where employer is there temporarily or every time as well, as the place where 2 metr higher than earth.

Ability of labour-work difficulty and it depends on heavy of work which identify development of physical activity and level of functional strain of human organism.

Level of labour weight-it highlight demand of spending energy and muscle power in labour process.

Danger of destroying -172J/c (150 Kkal), include at the beginning of the general power, peripherals -172…293 j/c(150-250 Kkal), or when it detects damage insulation , broken wire should.

Manufacture factors deal with negative consequences such as injury it means dangerous factors as well as detrimental factors.

These factors represents following types:

BD10263_  Physical

BD10263_  Chemical

BD10263_  Biologic


BD14578_Physic factors refer moving vehicles and mechanisms, constructions which isn't rigorous, smooth blades, mechanical shake and so on.

BD14578_ Chemical factors refer higher level dust and a gas poisonous substance which is used in industry may touch the skin or come into stomany or eyes.

BD14578_ Biologic factors clarify pathogen microorganisms, bacteria, amoeba, fungal, germ, inefiction, mushrooms and poisonous plants.

BD14578_Psychologic factors- the time of state emergency assurance of life-function security is complex arrangement which adjusted to protect health and life in every specialty directions which adjusted to assurance of life function security are.


4.2 Prevention of being workaholic and own hygiene

      Hazardous factors in manufacture cause workaholic illnesses like for instance moving vehicles and mechanisms,electr currents and stuff like that connect with damaging and harming dangerous factors such as poisonous gas,exhaust fumes, noises, shaking, radiation and etc.

The following factors prevent workholic problems:

BD21300_   Reduce dangerous factors or resolve it. It is carried out by vehicles and construction mechnism.

BD21300_Reduce spreading way of detrimental factors. These clarify instruction and mechanisms which diminish the size ofdetrimentalfactors. Actually this idea is best illustrated with the exampleofnoisemitigating factors, shock absorbtion and Stuff like that.

BD21300_   Private prevention means.In fact this concept can be illustrated with the case of gas masks or helmet which protects head.

BD21300_Prophylavtic measures for instance provding free meals and presenting short work time.

Private hygiene basically means keep the body clean, follow the rule and sanitary demandinworktime and meal time. Unfollowing in private hygiene deal with a wide range of illnesses, especially infectious diseases.

4.3Microclimate of manufacturing rooms

Microclimate of manufacture rooms is considered one of the basic factors which identifics general conditions of human organismi during the worktime. Human organism is affected by atmosphere with heat change. Heat balance of organism, namely the equalty of delvered heat provide consistent air temperature - 21 to 25 ° C (cold season), from 23 to 25 ˚ C (during the warmer months) Humidity (relative) - from 40 to 60 %. Unacceptable sharp temperature drops Kieu and humidity over 75%; ionization of air - generated indoors positively charged ions are very harmful to health , cause rapid fatigue , headache , increased heart rate and respiration (due to lack of oxygen in the blood). Special devices - aeroionizers - normalize aeroionic mode, increasing the concentration of light negative ions atmosphere as well as this workshop identify optimal indexes of micro organism.Maximum weight lifted and moved women cargo, provided the alternation of this work with other work up to 2 times per hour, is 10 kg, and with a constant lifting and moving heavy during the shift - 7 kg. Because a woman's body is particularly vulnerable during pregnancy, there is a need to transfer women some time to work not associated with adverse effects of heavy and hazardous working conditions.

Microlimate allow 2 factors to clarify:

BD21300_   Year period: Hot ,Cold and Past time .

BD21300_Weight level of work.

Optimal microlimate creating is very important and considers rigouroustasns. The Prime examples:

BD21301_Ratsional place of building and room

BD21301_Ratsional cold of the room and consist heating.

BD21301_    Use private protection elements.

BD21301_Consisting time of work effectively.

Supervision Questions

1. What sanitation of manufacturing is based on protecting.

2. What affectsin which organized sanitation.

3. How many human health and atmosphere of producing and labour process.

4. How many factors as well as detrimental factors.

5. What factors refer higher level dust and gas poisonous substances.

6. What in manufacture cause workaholic illnesses like for.

7. Which charged ions are very harmful to health.

8. What problem stays in short and long urgent.

9. What is document plan and in what parts can stay.

10.In what enter on the safe at time was specify chappen.






1. Organize the ventilations at production rooms.

2. Naturally and artificially ventilations at production rooms.

3. Heating of production rooms.


Literatures: 2,3,8,12,15,14,20,21,35,36,51,59,60,66,67

Scholastic visual aids: 25, 26, 27

Necessary concepts: Naturally, artificilally, local  ventilation, air  conditioning, deflector, circulation, local  and  central  heating.


5.1. Oorganize the ventilations at production rooms

         Organize  the  air  ventilation  is  one  of  the  main  things  to  keep  required  level  of  purity  and  permitted  scale  of  microclimate  at  production  rooms.

         Ventilation  at  production  room  means  to  blow  out  dirty  air  and  to  fresh  the  air  inside  the  room.

         According  to  air  circulation  ventilation  equipments  are  divided  into  natural  and  artificial  (mechanic).(25th slide)

          Natural  air  ventilation  is  occurred  with  the  air  pressure  difference  of  outside  and  inside  the  rooms. Deflector  (deflegmator) is  used  to  increase  the  potential  of  the  air  circulation   equipment.

          If  air  ventilated  through  ventilation  channels  mechanically  then  it  is  called  mechanical  or  artificial  air  ventilation.

Mechanic air ventilation is divided into general, local, mixed, emergency and air conditioning.

          With  the  use  of  general  ventilation  systems  extra  heat, humidity  and  bad  particles  are  changed  with  fresh  air  from  all  working  areas.

           Local  air  ventilation  equipment  is  installed  at  source  where  separated  extra  heat, humidity  and  bad  particles.

          At  mixed  ventilation  general  and  local  air  ventilation  equipments  are  used  together.

          Emergency  ventilation  is  installed  at  rooms  where  suddenly  may  separate  too  much  bad  or  toxic  particles.

Air conditioning means to keep microclimate in certain level automatically.

          Ventilation  equipments  are  divided  into  3  types  according  to  blow fresh  air  in  or  blow  out  room  air: sucking, blowing  and  sucking-blowing.

          The  unit  of  the  air  ventilation  times  potential  is  K.Air  ventilation  times  means  when in  a  certain  time  certain  amount  of  fresh  air  blows  in (L,m3/s) by  room  volume (V, m3).




         When  air  ventilation  times  are   E< 3  then  natural  air  ventilation  is  enough, if  E  > 3 then  it  is  suggested to  install  artificial  (mechanic)  air  ventilation  equipment.


5.2. Natural and artificially ventilations at production rooms

Natural air ventilation.Natural  air  ventilation  systems  are  installed  at  production  rooms  according  to  sanitary-hygienic  rules. Natural air  ventilation  is  occurred  with  the  difference  of  air  pressure  and  density  of  the  room  and  outside  air  pressure  and  density.They  are  divided  into  organized  and  unorganized  types. In  organized  air  ventilation  system  air  speed  and  direction  can  be  regulated  with  special  equipment  (deflector).

According  to  sanitary  standards  and  rules (SN  and  R ) the  minimal  usages  of  external  air  inside  the  rooms  are: with  natural  ventilation  for  1m2  areas  of  living  and  stay  rooms  are  3m3/hour, without  natural  ventilation  for  public  and  administrative  rooms  is  60-20 m3/hour  for  1  person, with  natural  ventilation  for  production  rooms  30-20 m3/hour  for  1 person, without  natural  ventilation  60-120 m3/hour.

Artificial (mechanic) ventilation. At  production  rooms  mechanic  ventilation  is  done  with  the  use  of  ventilators. Artificial  ventilation  equipments  consist  of  below  elements: ventilator, pathway, blowing  air  channels,  air  sucking, blowing  out  of  used  air  and  air  heating  and  cleaning  equipments.

       The  construction  of  the  ventilators  divided  into  2 types: centrifugal  and  axial.In  axial  ventilators  electro  engine  is  installed  inside  of  the  pipe  and  blowing  out  air  pass  through  engine. Centrifugal  ventilators  are  better  than  axial,  and  air  doesn’t  pass  through  engine.This  gives  possibility  to  work  in  rooms  with  polluted  many  types  of  gases, vapor  and  dust.

Ventilators  are  divided  into  3  types  according  to  pressure  it  produse:


µ   High pressure (till 12 êÏÀ).

µ   Low  pressure  (till 1 kPa)

µ   medium  pressure (till 3 kPa)

µ   high  pressure  (till 12 kPa)


The  types  and  dimension  of the  ventilators  are  selected  according  to  its  air  blow  amount, pressure  and  ambient. The  coefficient  of  efficiency  of  centrifugal  ventilator  is  0,5-0,6,  axial  ventilator  is  0,5-0,7,  and  ejector  is  till  0,25.


5.3. Heating of production rooms

        The  main  requirement  of  the  heating  of  production  rooms  are to  keep  temperature at  sanitary-hygienic  standard  and  to  create  convenient  and  healthy  condition.

        At  production  mianly  is  used  local  and  central  heating  system.(26thslide)

          Local  heating – electricity, gas  and  other  source  of  heat  are   used  for  local  heating.Local  heating  is  used  for  buildings  not  bigger  than  500 m2  which  are  located  farther  from  production  buildings.These  heating  systems  produse  many  gases (carbon  oxides  and  etc.) which  pollute  air. By  the  way  this  kind  of  heating  systems  coefficient  of  efficiency  is  very low.

Central heating – is divided into water, vapor, water-vapor and air heating devices. For  heating  production  buildings  water  devices  are used  very  widely  as  they  are  more  convenient  and  safe. Central water heating devices have low and high pressure. For heating they use many types of   pipes and radiators.

          In  low  pressure  heating  devices  water  goes  from  vapor  tank  to  expansion  tank  which  is  installed  higher  than  heating  system. Then  boiled  water  goes  back  through  heating  system  to  vapor  tank. In  this  kind  of  heating  system  no  pump  is  used  to  circulate  the  water. The  temperature  of  the  water  coming  from  vapor  tank  to  heating  system  consists  85-95 0C, and  while  exiting  the heating  system  water  becomes  around  65-70 0C. It  is  known that  water  volume  becomes  1800  times  bigger  when  it  boils. Expansion  tank  prevents  pipe  burst  when  water  boils  and  enlarges  its  volume, and  also  expansion  tank  is  used  to  move  out  air  stocked  inside  the  system. This  kind  of  heating  equipments  works  well  when  the  furthest  heating  system  is  50 meters  and  horizontally  lowest  heating  system  is  3 meter  high  from  vapor  tank.

          In  high  pressure  systems  water  circulation  are  done  by  pumps. There are used special centrifugal pumps. In high pressure systems water temperature reaches 120-135 0C.

Vapor  heating  systems  work  with  low  pressure  (till 70 kPa)  and  high  pressure( more  than  70 kPa).

In  water  and  vapor  heating  systems  the  temperature  is  about  95 0C, so  organic  addition, dust  may  burn  and  give  bad  smell  to  the  air  and  it  may  burn  workers  hand  if  they  touch  the  system  unknowingly. So  in  this  kind  of  system it  is  recommended  to  cover  the  heating  systems   with  wooden  or  steel  fences.

       In  air  heating  systems outside  cold  air  heated  with  heater  and  blew  into  room. If  hot  air  blew  into  room  at  3,5  meter  high  then  70 0C, if  less  than  2 meter  then  45 0C  is  allowed  to  blow. To  heat  the  heater  is  used  vapor, boiled  water  or  electricity  as  a  heating  generator. In  air  heating  system the  room  is  heated  through  air  ventilation  system.


Check  questions

1.    How many types of ventilation production rooms have?

2.    To how many types natural ventilation divided?

3.    What kinds of ventilators are used in mechanic ventilation?

4.    What does number means in ventilatiors model?

5.    What does air ventilation times means?

6.    How does heating explained in production  rooms?

7.    How does low heating system  works?

8.    What  does  used  as  an  agent  in  local  heating  equipment?

9.    Where  pressure  comes  in  high  pressure  heating  system?

10.          Where  air  heating  system  usually   used?


Themes  for  reading  independently


1.    Counting  natural  and  artificial  ventilation.

2.    Explaining  air  circulation  system.

3.    Air  conditioning .

4.    Counting  vapor  and  water  heating  system.




1.  Health standards lighting of workplaces.

2.  Types of lighting and light-main technical parameters of lighting.

3.  Natural lighting of workplaces.

4.  Artificial lighting of workplaces.


Literature: 2,3,8,12,15,14,20,2135,36,51,59,60,66, 67.

Visual teaching materials: 28,29.

Necessary concepts: lighting, natural lighting, artificial lighting, sanitary norm, phy-siological processes, luminous flux, brightness,lampslighting, pulsationback-ground.


6.1. Health standards in office lighting

Lighting indoor and industrial places is a practical essential to ensure safety    labour. (Lighting is affects to processes human’s organism). Lighting affects the human body processes occurring. Through the eyes of a person receives about 90 % of all information. Poor lighting industrial premises not only result in fatigue of the body, and are working negatively nervous system and during operation, quickly ti-res and also cause a decrease in productivity.

Methods of lighting are natural and the artificial. If natural light correct plan and whether it is in the normal levels for a person provided the most comfortable working conditions.


Lighting jobs and rooms is determined mainly by the requirement set out below:

Ø Should be given the ability to easily and quickly distinguish between workers objects.

Ø The illumination must be uniform and not any sudden ten should not be.

Ø Between the object and the color of its location place must a certain level the difference ("contrast").

Ø Source lighting should not create the facility is not any bright shiny.

Ø Source lighting should not bedazzle the eye worker.

Ø Educastional level work surface lighting should not change interval.


These requirements set lighting not only found its proof in research, in practice, too. Normal lighting not only depend on the flow of light, it depend on the contrast between the background and the object, the reflection of light flat surfaces too.


6.2. Types of lighting and light-main technical parameters of lighting

Lighting conditions workplaces are determined by quantitative and qua- litative characteristics. Quantitative are luminous flux (F, lm), intensity (I, cd), illuminance (E, lx), brightness (?, Cd/m2) and reflectance (?%), and quality  the background, the contrast of the object distinction with the background, visibility, glare index and ripple.

         Depending on the light source lighting can be natural (solar disk and creates a diffusion light sky ) , artificial ( created by electric lamps ) and combined (natural + artificial).

Functional purpose lighting is divided into operating, emergency, evacuation and house . Work light uses a natural, artificial light, and other kinds of lighting only artificial light. Working lights mandatory in all areas and territories to work properly. Emergency lighting suit indoor and outdoor areas for further work in industries (such as CHP), where work lights off (accident) can cause an explosion, fire, poisoning or prolonged disturbance of the process. Provide evacuation lighting in places that are dangerous for the passage of people, in the main aisles and stairways of buildings, with the number of evacuees more than 50 people.  


6.4.        Natural lighting of workplaces

Natural lighting is characterized by the coefficient of natural light (CNL). Un-der him understand the attitude of natural light at a given point in space (Ei) for si-multaneous outdoor horizontal illuminance value (Eo).

On design features natural lighting is divided into lateral (through the window), top (through lights, openings in the covers) and combined (lateral + top). Illuminance coefficient should not be less than 80% at the side lighting, and for rooms with top or side + top lighting below 90%. To provide illumination level norms calculation of natural lighting reduces to determining the area of ​​the window openings on the formulas given in sanitary norms and rules.


6.3.       Artificiallightingofworkplaces

Artificial lighting is divided by the total (uniform or localized) and combi-ned (total + local). One local lighting industrial premise is not allowed. Normative value of lighting set with regard to the nature of visual work. For industrial premises accuracy performance and distinction of objects set six bits of visual works. For the first category of works is the ultimate illumination appointed - 5000 lux, for the fourth digit and more work is assigned the smallest illuminance - 75 lux.

Artificial light sources are incandescent (IL) and discharge lamps (DL). Incandecent lamps operate at a nominal force from 127 to 220 Volt, and possess the power from 15 to 1500 watts. Higher than the power of the lamp so its ability to be a powerful lighting. If you use a lamp with the same capacity of 220 Volt gain, they illuminate powerful than Power 127 Volt. Lifetime of incandescent lamps up to 1000 hours, the light output is 7 ... 20 lm / w.

Discharge lamps respond more hygienic demands than incandescent lamps. Lifetime of discharge lamps up to 14000 hours, the light output is 100 lm / w. The most common discharge lamp can be driven as an example of a lamp in the form of a cylindrical tube. Also produced ultraviolet lamps, mercury, xenon, halogen and sodium.

Illumination is measured using luxmeter. It is used for luxmeters with marks Þ-17, Þ-116.

Control questions

1.    Which conditions intercalary workplace lighting?

2.    What types can be of natural lighting?

3.    What parameter evaluated natural light?

4.    How much should be the amount of natural lighting in the side, top and combined form?

5.    What in the basic technical etalons lighting standard?

6.    Is it possible use artificial lighting local separately?

7.    How much should be in the workplace minimum and maximum values illuminance?

8.    What lighting norms as if the work is performed at the outside?

9.    Which of lamp is used artificial illumination?

10.           Which lamp is the part of the discharge lamps?


Topics for independent reading

1. Sanitary norms and rules.

2. Lighting requirements of computer rooms.

3. Calculation method of natural lighting.

4. Calculation method of artificial lighting.






1.  Sound and its measurement unity

2.  Noise and its influence on person

3.  Production vibration , influence to vibrations on organism of the person

4. Methods of the reduction of the influence of the vibrating manyines and equipment



Study-Visual materials:30,31

Necessary concepts:: sound, noise, ultrasound , Infrasond , frequency , elasticambience, intensity , pressures of the voice and loudness , vibration , transport , technologically vibration , panelling and locality vibration.

7.1 Sound and its measurement unity

There are much noises In different ambience of the surrounding people, and people can acceptance organ rumour

On physical essence noise - a wave-like property of the particles of the springy ambience (gas, air and water). Humanly rumour to have hear from 16 Hz before 2000 Hz frequencies. The Sound waves with frequency less 20 Hz are identified infra sound, but with frequency more than 20 000 Hz   ultrasonic and ultrasonic fluctuations organ rumour of the person are not perceived. The Noise   this combination sound different frequency and intensities. With physiological standpoint by noise name any undesirable sound, rendering bad influence on organism of the person.

Special parameters about noise (30-slide):

Sound frequency - measurement unity Hertz (Hz). Memory scientist by physics Genrih Hertz ( 1857 – 1894 ) was named.

Sound pressure - will measure on Pascal ( Pa ) –1Pa=1Í/M.  

Ðî = 2×10-5 Pa next persons voluptuous modification sound pressure. When will  2×102    influence pain humans ear .

Sound intensity measurement on – VT/ M2

the human hearing aid intensity”O”   BEL (B) acceptance.

When sound intensity increases on 10 times greater wakes even    J=10-11   Bò/ì2    and, so intensity level wakes L1=1 B, if sound intensity increases on 100 times greater J=10-10  Bò/ì2 , L1=2B wakes more and others .

Sound loudness, hard (volume) - measurement with “FON”.  In one FON has - 1000 Hz frequencies 1d intensive hard rumour.


7.2 Noise and its influence on person

Not only strong noises, bring about instant deafness or damage organ rumour of the person, is harmed are reflected on health and capacity to work of the people. The Noises small level negative act upon nervious system of the person, cause the insomnia that leads to productions cuts of the labour and raises probability of the arising the accident on production. The Constant action of the noise on person in process of the labour can cause the different psychic breaches, gastrointestinal and skin diseases.

actions high sound frequency beside workman of the brainwork passes reduction of the rate of the work, her quality and capacity on 10 -15 % .

         The maximum sound pressure of the person listens through ear, this is identified the beginner a range.  And it is been 2*10-5. Beginning range maximum sound pressure when person listens through ear increases on 10 mln.times greater is on, 2*102 Pa .Under constant influence of the noise on organism of the person can appear pathological change, named by noise disease, which is a professional disease.

Considering actions harm noise and its categorization:

Ø the checkup frequency composition : low frequency :  average frequency and high frequency ;

Ø checkup broadly spectral frequency :  narrow road ; broad road

Ø checkup nature spectrum : impulsive ; tone ; stable and changing on time


Methods of the fight with noise :

1.    Insulating the source of the noise from surrounding ambiences:

2.    Using the rational planning the premiseses:

3.    Use the remote control at usages noise , its equipment and manyines :

4.    Use the individual meanses of protection :

          5.   Undertaking preventive action, directed on reconstruction of health .


7.3 Production vibration and her influence on person

When functioning working the person with manyine , the mechanism , technician on person influences vibration . Vibration be transport , transport - technological and technical vibration appears at manyine , tractor and others.

If action simultaneously wholly the technical action  ,transport technological in time not actions of the many ines.

( 31 - slide)

If action simultaneously wholly technical action , transport technological in time not actions of the manyines , mechanism and device occurs technological vibration . Depending on nature of the contact of the workman with vibrating equipment distinguish local and general vibration.

The General - through shift flesh device .When person wakes 2 - 4 – month. Exists else and mixed vibration which influences and on limbs, and on the whole to whom person. The Local vibration exists basically under with vibrating manual instrument or desk equipment. The General vibration dominates on transport manyine, in production shop heavy, lift, where vibration floors, wall or basis of the equipment. Its measurement ,vibration velocity (ì/ñ) or d/B. The Systematic influence general vibration, characterizes the weight a level to velocities, brings about vibratory disease, which is characterized by breaches physiological function organism, connected with defeat of the central nervious system. These breaches cause to headaches, dizzinesses, reduction to capacity to work, deterioration of the general state, breaches to activity V0=5*10-8  m/c .

The Manual manyines, which vibration has a level to energy in low frequency (before 35 Hz), cause vibratory pathology with primary nervously-muscular and supporting-motor device. When work with manual manyine, the vibration which has a maximum level to energy in radio-frequency area of the spectrum (above 5 -10  Hz   and 17.....25Hz), appear the inclination to spasm 0.2 m/c container influence to vibrations of the low frequency disease appears through  20...30 Hz the , under in action of the radio-frequency vibration - through 132 dB and less  1 Hz the polishers.

Distinguish hygenic and technical standertization vibration.  63 Hz Gigienichno - limit the parameters to vibrations worker places to surfaces of the contact with hand working, coming from 28*10 m/c physiological requirements, excluding possibility 75 dB of the origin vibratory disease.


7.4 Methods of the reduction of the influence of the vibrating manyines and equipment

In accordance with position about mode of the labour workman vibration dangerous profession general time of the contact with vibrating manyine, the vibration which corresponds to the sanitary rate, must not exceed 2/3 long and workday.

Work with vibrating equipment, as a rule, must be conducted in heated premiseses with the temperature of the air not less 16'Ñ, at moisture of the motion not more. At impossibility of the making the similar conditions work outdoors underground work , for periodic heating must be provided special heated premiseses with the temperature of the air not less 22'Ñ, refer;carry flesh moisture by velocity of the motion carry spirit.

The Production operations must be distributed between workman so that length of the unceasing influence to vibrations, including micro pause, did not exceed 15 - 20 mines. It Is Recommended herewith two specified break (for active rest, undertaking the production atheletics on special ): 20 mines (through 1 - 2 ch after begin change) and 30 mines - through 2 ch after eaten break. To work with vibrating manyine and equipment are allowed person not younger 18 years, got corresponding to qualification, technical minimum to by the rules safety and passed physical examination.

         The Manyinesmanual.ThePossible level to vibrations. The Estimation degree  vibrations of the manual HBA-1 , ÈØÂ -1, ÂÈÏ -2 , ÂÐ - 1 manyines is produced on spectrum  within the 3105  range of frequencies. For each “Bruyl and Keyr ” and RFT (Germany) band within specified frequencies install possible importances of the root-mean-square value and its level for importances .


Checking questions


1.Voice what types distribute?

2.What difference in noise and in voice?

3. Measure noise how subject?

4.  Persons organ insofar Hz frequencies can hear?

5.Ultra sounds and infra sounds in what frequency be spoken?

6.  Vibration what acts on person and what disease causes?

7. Vibration is separated In what type?

8. Vibration  what types distribute?

9.  Measure vibration  how subject?

10.About methods of the reduction of the influence of the vibrating manyines and equipment?






1. Concept of Safety.

2. Engineering security.

3. Alarm system and warning signs.


Literature3,21,23,28,30,47,59,65, 67

Study – visual material37,38,39.

Necessary concepts: safety, technical safety, danger, danger zone, risk, barrier, blocked , save, alarm, label of security.


8.1. Concept of safety

Safety called technical measures aimed at ensuring safe working conditions.

It is known that each device has its own technical dangerous zone.

Under the danger zone area understood jeopardize the permanent or temporary employee working near manyinery.

The threat may be real or hidden . In this regard, the design of any mechanism is required to meet the following requirements.

General requirements:

µ Moving manyinerymanyines must be protected or closed guard , the manyine must be placed with the provision of maintenance and repair ;

µ  Structural elements should not be sharp or rough surface (if this does not require the functionality of the manyine) must be prevented by working with touch hot or cold items;

µ  It is impossible to prevent accidental breakage or cracks constituent are equipment (wires, pipes, etc.)

µ  Dimensions backhaul should be small , safe and designed for movement between the equipment and power lines ;

µ  The level of harmful substances released as a result of the mechanisms shall not exceed the permissible norms and should not be distributed in the atmosphere.

Particular requirements include appropriate hygienic requirements indicators light levels , noise and vibration ; Brake systems reliability , ease of management and compliance with the technical and aesthetic requirements


8.2. Measures to ensure the safety and security equipment engineering

         Reducing hazards in the production is carried out by the following measures :

- Developement and proizvedstvo safe equipment ;

- The use of technical means for the defense;

- Production and the introduction of safe modern technological developments ;

- Organization of training for workers safety regulations

By means of engineering , safety include:

1. Obstacles devices (motion fixed permanent, temporary )

2 . Lockouts

3 . Safety devices ( protect from mechanical overload , enabling the movement of vehicles moving inside the devices within certain limits ; protecting from increasing pressure and temperature , to ensure the preservation of electrical current within the allowable amount) ;

4 . Brakes

5 .Devices for remote control.


8.3. Alarm System and caution labels

In accordance with the task performs signal warning devices are related to accidents, control and communications. And on the basis of work they are divided into light signals , sound , color and symbolic signals.

An example of the light signals can be marker lights ( lights ) " Stop Light " indicator lamps and others. They are used at a level of 60-70 dB above the noise .

Color and sign signals used to warn of danger , for example, in accordance with standards , red means " ban " , "Stop " , " Danger" ; - yellow "Caution" , "Warning" on the danger; Green - " Safe ", " Resolution ", " The road is open ," blue "Information" .

Warning signs in accordance with safety standards are divided into 4 groups:

*      Prohibit

*      prevent

*      demonstrative

*      prescriptive .

 Prohibiting , signs are used to prohibit or limit any action. They have a circular shape .

Warning signs inform about possible dangers and have a triangular shape .

Mandatory safety signs are intended to indicate the resolution of any action based on specific requirements. Have a square shape.

Directional signs are used to indicate the location of various objects and have four coal form . In order to improve safety in the use of manyinery received wide application and remote device. By the principle of work, they are divided into:

*      Mechanical

*      hydraulic

*      pneumatic

*      electric

*      combined.

Control questions:

1. How grouped harmful sources?

2 . What distinguishes harmful and dangerous sources?

3 . What dangers are there?

4 . What is in the danger zone of manyinery ?

5 . Which common and individual requirements for hardware designs ?

6. What is included in the event to ensure safety?

7. What kinds share technical means to ensure safety?

8. Which species are divided signal safety devices ?

9. How many types of safety signs are there?

10 . Possible to use remote devices to ensure safety ? What types they share ?


Themes For Independent Reading (Studying)


1. Interaction elements of " Danger - cause - consequence ."

2 .Assumption and danger.

3 .Hazards arising in information and communication systems.

4 . Engineering and technical means to ensure safety .






1.About the system of information technologies

2. The dangerous and harmful factors in the informationtechnologies and the industrial safety.

3. The ergonomical, sanitary and  medical norms the offices.


Literature: 3,21,23,28,30,47,59,67.

Visual teaching materials:  Slides  28,29.

Base aphorisms: information technologies, communication, dangerous factor, harmful factor, telecommunication, globalization, international information resource, ergonomics, radiation, ionic radiation, dosage radiation, radiation sickness, dosimeter.


9.1. About the system of information technologies

At the time of globalization and increasing the competition of economics it is becoming more and more important to use information technologies. Enlarging of technical opportunities and this industrial system are important in stengthining for competitions, especially it helps the goverment staff to provide their strategical stability.

The last desade of the 20th century information technologies became a main part of human life and it contributed to develop the society. Nowadays in the society the system, of information technologies are developing and also it helps to change ordinary life.  Information technologies or devices are widely used in all branches of life. Each peson has got chance to improve their financial conditions because of the information technologies and they help people to join the international information society.

The legal norms of information technologies were created by the government of our republic such as 11 specialized and 6 straightly attached laws, 3 resolutions of the president of the republic of Uzbekistan more than 40 resolutions accompanied by the president of the low-court of the Ministers and other 600 decisions.

The fact trat it is important to provide the artivity of hight quality and the use of  information technologies widely and to organize good conditions in joining the International system.



9.2.  The dangerous and harmful factors in the information technologies and the industrial safety


      The technical means (modern computers ,printers ,Xeroxes,mobilecalls,mass media ,radio etc…) are used  to send information , recieve, save,correct,type,print,copy,and other process based on information  technologies.Certianly,even though the development of information technologies give several opportunities to people ,they are Rarmful for the life of human being and their health.

     Nowadays we have a lot of chance to use information technologies but we must know how to use them safely or in the correct way.


   Dangerous factor: cause different injuries and hurts,The main dangerous factors is electricity in using information technologies .In this case ,evrebody must know the use of electricity perfectly or they  must   conform  the safety rules.

   Harmful factors:  cause the employment illness as the people use information technologies a lot. The main harmful factors are some rays, noise, the powders of printers or Xeroxes, getting eye-sight worse and others.

So, we don’t say the computers are quite safe for one’s health . Computers help us to work,improve ,outlook and knowledge , know the world ,getv information but they cause different ergonomical injuries because  of the incorrect use.For example ,in the USA in the 1992  50 % of all injuries usasergonomical ones and that matter appeared in process  of the development of information technologies.

   The harmful factors include electricity ,electromagneticwavef ,infra-red rays, netraviolet rays and noise in the use of computers .They incluencepeople pscho –physiologically.

Infra –red rays cause human body to warm up , hight temperature netraviolet rays cause to change cells under skin biologically ,electromagnet  waves cause to damage nerve center of the people . And also hight lightning cause the disease ‘Lightning’ and this desiase may cause genetical changes and the lack of thema and may affect the pregnancy badly.We can see the first marks such as weakness, exhaustion, headache, feeling aslup, falling blood pressure, high temperature, spewing and so on.

So as to proted from lightning in the process of using computers, we have to choose proper monitors for computers ,Nowadays the standarts MPR-II, TCO-92, TCO -95 are remarked the factors as the result of lightning .

     The acceptable noise 50dB ,the elements of depiction -0.1mm ,sequence frequense 60 Hz in a positive contrast nrenovating the text sequence frequence 72Hz ,the power of x-rays 0.03mr/R and so on .All monitors must be processed antistatically .

frequency range

ÌPR-II the standard

ÒÑÎ-92 the standard


Electr’s area



ultralow 5 Gts-2 kGts.

25,5 Â/ì


low 2kGts -400kGts

2,5 Â/ì


Magnit’s area



ultralow 5Gts -2 kGts.



low 2kGts -400kGts




The fact that the bad influence of computers has some sides such as their harmful effect of the young and also they change people’s nerve centers their mental and psychological manners.




9.3. The ergonomical, sanitary and  medical norms the offices


     So as to reduce the bad affects of computers ,we must supply the offices and places with the computers which are in good ergonomicalcorditions .And also it is important for everyone to obey the rules and standarts such the lighting ,sanitary and medical norms,the sizes of the computer tables and the most important one is to organize a good working condition and son. For example after working for 40-45 minutes on computer we must have a break about 10 -15minutes ,do the exercises which can keep the nerves calm and peaceful .The table has to be as large as possible. This is the main obligation , because we must put all manyines  according to ergonomics. The height of the table must be the some level with the middle of  stomany ,the feet on a  smooth floor ,the body must be upright.

So , the table must be as heavy as possible. The table must be well-attached on the floor otherwise  , shaking causes bad impacts . it is useful to put two tables side by side ,in this case the second table is fitted on the  right so as to use a mouse mat perfectly . There must be a space between the table and the wall.

Hypodynamia is being widely propagated day be day because of the development of information technologies .this problem doesn’t belong to computers . All the people who work sitting on a chair are in danger of coming down with the hypodynamia . Sitting too long is harmful for one’s body and in capillary vessels are observed to stop and damage circulation. They come down with some rheumatical pains and diseases.

To prevent from these factors you must :

µ change the condition of the body regularly while using a computer.

µ stretch well

µ change the feet’s condition’s under the table.

µ keep a mobile phones as far  as possible

µ if you want to drink coffee ,tea and other liquids  ,don’t do in from of the computer, go to another plase

µ walk outside frequently.

µ get accustomed to watching autside through the window and it is very useful.

µ spend time active before and after using a computers how can the human body will be injured?

µ life of 40-50 cm in the distance from the computer

µ buy quality , secure monitor

µ picture of life in the monitor should be clear clear

µ often clear monitor wet because dust monitor is the major source of exposure storage .

µ use with air ions.


So as to reduce the bad affects of computers, and places with the computers which are in good. Nowadays, eye on forbidden to work for 2-3 months who were operated eyes.


Control questions.

1. What is the task of Information Technology

2 . What is ICT ?                   

3 . In our Republic which legal regulations set ?

4 . ICT technical means - on computers which occupational hazards exist.

5 . Which MAC standard set number of hazards occurring on computers ?

6. On computers which exposure can occur ?

7. Radiation exposure which negative change can occur on the body?

8. On how many computer rooms MPC noise ?

9. Which ergonomic requirement has computer rooms?

10 . Which mode works on a computer work ?






1.Principles and methods of protecting people support from states of emergency.

2.Beforehand state Value of SE’s possibles.

3.Planning arrangement which adjusted to protecting life- function security at


Curriculum - vizual  materials: slide ¹ 58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65.

Necessary concepts: principle, method, means,differential approach, evacuation,defence structure, private defence means, medical preventive means, beforehand learning of S.E, document-plan.


10.1 Principles and methods of protecting people from States of emergency

Protect people at the time of S.E-foresee of refusing results or complex arrangements adjusted to lessening of influence degree. At the time of state emergency assurance of life-function security is complex arrangement which adjusted to protect health and life at every specialty.

Directions which adjusted to assurance of life function security are following.

*                        Beforehand state the value of S.E s possiblis.

*                         Planning arrangiments which adjusted to lessening of S.E.

*                        Dessening state emergency sphere of influence.

*                         Assurance of national economy project’s stediness.

*                         To teach people according to rules of attempt at the time of S.E;

*                         To finish influences of S.E;

Princinples of security assurance

µ  Beforehand noted preparations

µ  Differential approach

µ Comlex arrangements

Difendingmethads from S.E.

¨   Evacuate population;

¨   Escape in defend-buildings;

¨   Using from private defend means;

¨   Medical preventive means;

More over aforesaid arrangements, for protecting fife function security in time followings are important at the time of S.E:

Ø  To teach people according to rules of attempt at the time of S.E;

Ø  Inform about S.E in time;

Ø Argansehugienic- medical arrangements against fire and epedemy.

10.2  Beforehand state value of S.E’s possibles

Predict of S.E-Based for intending natural calamities and technical destructions. S.E’s possible areas are fixed according to infoundedinformations. Character and size of arrangements which to settle outcomes of S.E are indicated approximately.

Now, seismic districts, downpours, torrents crumblings and other avalanches possible areas are determined. Like-wise, big-destruction possible enterprises are indicated. It’s called-long time predict.

To determine time of S.E’s possible is called short-time.S.E’s possible position are fixed according to mathematic methods. On predict of S.E followings are received as a initial information:

µ  hidden danger place;

µ  danger coordination and energy stock’

µ  population quantity and settle compactness;

µ construction character, defence structure quantity, kind and volume;

µ meteorological conditions;

µ  place character;

For fixing positions at the time of S.E:

v  S.E possible area;

v  injury hearth;

v  Danger of destroying wealth and death which owing to S.E’s possible;

v  And volume of injury are determined.      

v Radiation, bacteriologic and chemical observe checks of laboratory.

v  Teach about time FBs the rule of attempt general and compulsory nation.

v  Hygienic and carry ot this actions.

v  AES, chemically pages and to see this safe situations as in dangerans object.

v  FBS make plans settle in this results, organize the assuring finances and this materials.

         The actions to defence specify the FBS happen possible:

*   Observing by specify pressive this informations and develop objects.

*   To bring the ready condition inform about FBS.

*   Doing advertisement FBS.

*   Put into practice necessary rules economic and public life.

*   The service bring the ready condition wreck-release.

*   To do erucase partly of the nation.


10.3 Special conditions in the time assuring the specify activity life are indicate make plan actions.

            Make plan, FBS in the assuring activity life is specify leader function and accounted joint of central. In make plan assuring  the  specify the time carry out, resurs and accomplisher actions person.

            In make plan compase document-plan and this consists of following parts.

* Exact shows (sort work, actions)

* Accomplishing in this works time, the resousce for accomplishing works(sort, mimeral, source)

* The worker person(in every one point)

* Selfilling of work to supervise sort.

           The part of plan consisting from two part.

Part -1:In FBS time about fix terms-condition summary.

Part-2:FBS the actions of the nations danger.

In this actions inset following sentence:

Ø To say the information about FB.

Ø Observing and organize accompany;

Ø Helping and accomplishing for important power and preparation this instruments;

Ø To do hentral or slow down this actions effect FBs;

Ø Peoples and actions defencerecource fulfilling often methods;

Ø Medical guarantee;

Ø Chemical observation;

Ø Develop the without wreck order bring to a stop;

Ø Organize the people defence

Ø Organization and manipulation of avoucational events.

Ø Order of organization of Aescue works in the different conditions.


Supervision Questions

1)   At FBs defence the nations- consisting in what directions.

2)   How many groups are there in safety assurance.

3)   In what include the prinsip approach differencial.

4)   Pressive the works are indicate in what actions import.

5)   Which composition in the complecs actions.

6)   In which actions consist of from FBs pressive.

7)   Which groups we can stay possible in FBs pressive.

8)   What problem stays in short and long urgent?

9)   In what enter on the safe at time was specify FBs chappen.

10)                     What is document plan and in what parts can stay.


Read independent for themes.

1)   Action of nation the protection engineer- technic.

2)   Action to make quiet and military times.

3)   Nature guarantee from FBs protection nations and territories.

4)   Defence actions tehnogen tints from FBs.




1. Providing stable working of agriculture objects in the states of emergency.

2. Organizing the saving in the damages and the work not be late.

3. Organizing the special and sanitary treat for living places, objects and people.


Literatures: 4,9,13,16,17,18,19,21,62,67,73,75

Scholastic  visual  aids: slide ¹ 66,67,68.

Support phrases: public production, object, economical objects, constant working, believable, constantly, rational situating of the object, centure of the damage,Deactivaton, Degassing, Disinject, Extermination of insects, Demurcurasition.


12.1 Providing stable working of agriculture objects in the states of emergency. Settling the results of the states of emergency.

    When we say about the stable working system and object in the states of emergency, we must understand that they work in signed shape and producing products in nomenclature, the opportunity of doing their functional duties fully in the branches which don’t produce products. There are following methods of providing stability: warning the appearing catastrophes, settling the ingluence of damaging causes on purpose providing workers’ lige and health, decreasing being lost of maerialwelth, erecting them quickly when engineering – technic and communication systums are destroyed in minimum and meddle degree.

    There are following tyeps of the providing of stability:

1. Stablity of the engineering – technic complex of the object.

2. The stability of the work of economical objects.

    The engineering technic complex of organization includes of buildings, technologic instruments, elektr, water and gas guarantee, sewerage system and heating system.

   Stable working of object depends on mainly how keeping of engineering technic coplex during the states of emergency.But there are other causes of decreasing of producing products or stopping them completely during the SE:

Ø When the workers injure;

Ø If supply is dwstroyed according to corparution or produce products.

Ø Special theating is direded into following types.

Following causes ingluence on stable working of economical objects in the states of emergency (63 – slide):

¨    Effective workers;

¨    Endurance of main producing products to the ingluence of destroyes factors;

¨    Technic instruments, electrical system, material – technic supply;

¨    Being ready for rescueing and erecting of to producing products;

¨    Supplying safe and continuous rule.

Tixing the price of stable working of economical objects in S.E consists of followings
(64 – slide);

Ø Founding out the states of emergency which maybe appear in thes region;

Ø Analysing and fixing the price of damaging factors of the S.E;

Ø Founding out references of economical objects and its elements;

Ø Founding out main methods of increasing stable working of economical objects.

Ø Economical objects methods damaging they other;

  Objects may destroy during the S.E in following conditions (65 – slide).

¨    When industrial objects ruin;

¨    If houses and buildings where people live destroy;

¨    And personal team injures.

   There are the causes which ingluence on the stable working of industrial objects:

1. Conditions of placing objects – they  must be far from the towns and other places where damage from the blow of nuclear rocket;

Damaging objects must be exist in the placed areas of the objects; (AES, the pantries of nerve gas which has great ingluence), Possiblity of stadying objects in water during catastrophes.

2. The referenees of the engineering – technique complex of the object – building compactness, endurancedegres of the buildings to the fire, constructive features.

3. The processes of producing products – rejerences damaging catecories to the fire and being blown up.

    There are the main directions of the stable working of the objects during the S.E:

1. Ratsional settling of the object and its buildings:  

Ø The complex developing oj the territory;

Ø Bulding and settling the object according to sanitarion norms and demands of the rules (CM and K) Q-01-51-90 project objects;

Ø Using from the underground for the demands and defence;

Ø Developing infrastructures of producing out the town;

Ø Teaching the categories ofobjects;

2. To organize protecting the producing workers and people during the S.E:

¨    Developing communication and information systems;

¨    Complex using for the main methods of protesting;

¨    Organizing the evacuation;

¨    Marking the project of the activity of people in damaged territory;

¨    Being ready for doing harmless;

¨    Producting foods;

3. To prepare producing industry in the object for condition of the S.E:

¨    Getting betferprodusingprodukts;

¨    To prepare manigacture technologically for produsing products during the S.E and to turn the process of producing products;

¨    To make building the bazes of nerve gas;

¨    To build buildings from easy material;

¨    Damaging objects must be exist in the placed areas of the objects;

4. Being ready for rebuilding the destroyed manufacture:

µ To found out the states of emergency which may be abd to fix price of them and to found out the amoun of necessary power and conditions for delivered harms and erecting them;

µ To organize power and to save always in ready condition;

µ To make plans, projects and to save them;

µ To organize ruling organs for ericting;

5. To prepare the agriculture ruling system for solving the problems of the S.E:

Ø To making ruling organs;

Ø To prepare for step over uncentralised ruling system;

Ø To prepare cadres;

Ø To prepare ruling organs and cadres ti work during the S.E;

Ø When industrial objects ruin;

Ø To organize to collect information and to increase it;

Ø To prepare automatic ruling system to for working during the S.E.

12.2  Organizing the saving in the damages and the work not be late.

   They are done in following:

1. Frist of all the passing pathes which leads to destroyed buildings for people are cleaned or rebuilt the witth of one side pathes must be 3 – 3.5 m, the width of one two – side – pathes must be 6 – 6.5 m.

2. To find and rescue the people Finding and rescuing begin when rescuing team is come in. The team connects with infuard people and they supply team with air, water, food.

3. The ways which maybe come out are apened or walls and obstacles are destroyed for opening hidden places and the rooms under houses. Frist of all plates are laised to 1 – 2 sm, glucose is gven to infured people. Then they rescue the people.

4.  The rescuing infured people: are done by the hand by the help of brizent, carpet and rescued, frist medical help is gven and they are evocuated.

The result of rescuing depands on the time of it.Rescueing and finding maybe continued for two weeks.For example the infured people according the result of earth quake in Spitak were found after 11 – 12 days.

         5. Other necessary work is: to repair communal energetic and technologic systems and erect them. Frist of all the accidents epad on gas are repaired. All work is done by gas.


12.3  Organizing the special and sanitary treat for living places, objects and people.

   One of the main factors for settling the results of the states of emergency is special treating for living places, objects and technic conditions. Special theating is direded into following types (66-slide).

µ Deactivaton;

µ Degassing;

µ Disinject;

µ Extermination of insects;

µ Demurcurasition;

      Functional purpose lighting is divided into operating, emergency, evacuation and house. Work light uses a natural, artificial light, and other kinds of lighting - only artificial light. Working lights mandatory in all areas and territories to work properly.

      Emergency lighting suit indoor and outdoor areas for further work in industries (sulfional), where work 1 % lights off (aniktor) can cause an explosion, fire, poisoning or prolonged disturbance of the process. Provide evacuation ligh-ting in places that are dangerous for the passage of people ,  CF subject 1m3 can explosion – 2 – 3 l,  Êä=100.

Desinjecthow much daylight reaches inside a building depends on the architecture of the building (does the building have windows; how big; how are they oriented), the amount and direction of sunlight, (ZKM) cloud cover, local terrain, and the season. The cleanliness (ZM) of the windows is important as well. The amount of daylight entering the workplace can be controlled with tinted glass, window blinds, curtains, and awnings. Daylight is desirable in the workplace providing it does not cause glare or make the work area too bright.

    ZKM Remember ZM, not enough light can also be a problem so even (NaOHallons 10% water azot oxide object system) in workplaces where daylight is available, it is essential to 10% have a good electric lighting system. Daylight is desirable in the workplace providing it does not cause glare or make the 25 % work area too bright.

      The amount of light, the colour of the light itself and the colour that objects appear vary with the type of electric lighting. The lighting must match the workplace and the task. The following are common types of bulbs.

Deactivation is to clean damaged surjaces from radioactive elements to protect people from the radioactive emission. According to type.If houses and buildings where people live destroy And personal team injures and character of the surface the following methods of deactivation are used: mechanic and phisochemical. The result of deactivation is priced by coefficient Êä. The coefficient (Êä) deactivation is the radioactive activity on the surface till the deactivation or the amount of the doze of its power after the deactivation.

    The mechanic method of the deactivation is done differently, It depends on the tyepe of soil. For example: to clan by swaping (Êä= 15), to cut soil (Êä= 25), ploughing (Êä= 7) to hide the surface of soil (Êä= 20). Making vacuum or shaving is used for wood and concrete.

Phisio – chemical method is used more and much resultful. It consists of followings:

Ø To wash by water for cleaning walls and dishes (Êä= 17 – 67);

Ø To wash by system for the sufaceswhich can be patient to heat. (Êä>40), the stress of stem is equal to – 0.15 MAA (1.5 atm).

Ø Gidroabraziv method (water + abraziv + karbid + bor + soil) the stress = P=

Ø by water after clening with alkali or acid by the brush (Êä= 50).

Ø To 7MÏa.

Ø To wash corer by polymeric dish.

Disenfect – to protect people and animals from infectious illness. It hass following methods:

µ Physical method  (cleaning, washing with K=ËÀÂ extra water);

µ Chemical method;

µ Phisic – chemical method;

µ Biological method;

Disinfect – to put an end to insects and pests of agriculture by physical, chemical and biological ways.

    Degassing – to clen the harmful elements which is stayed on  the surface of technic instruments; areaas economic objects for protecting people from demaging.

Extermination of insects – to fight against (PM), ZKM rodents and to put an and to them.To give sanitar treat to people – to clean mechanically damaged skins, clothes and shoes of people from the radioactive element and bactralogic elements. Whether in industrial or office settings, proper lighting makes all work tasks easier. People receive about percent of their information PM, ZM through their sense of sight. Appropriate lighting, without glare or shadows, can reduce eye fatigue and headaches; it can prevent workplace accidents by increasing the visibility of moving manyinery and other safety hazards. We must use sprats (talk, silinagles), paste gov escaping from damaging at the result of radioactive and bactraologic elements. The coefficient of extermination of insects is equal till Êä= 35. PM artical of full treat is givin to people when the skin and clothes damaged. When they damage from (ÊÒÝÇÌ),  radioactive elements, clothes are cleaned by (ÈÏÏ-8,9,10) brush and the skin is washed.



Check  questions

1.      How  many  types  of  ventilation  production  rooms  have?

2.      To how  many  types  natural  ventilation  divided?

3.      What  kinds  of  ventilators  are  used  in  mechanic  ventilation?

4.      What  does  number  means  in  ventilatiors  model?

5.      What  does  air  ventilation  times  means?

6.      How  does  heating  explained  in  production  rooms?

7.      How  does  low  heating  system  works?

8.      What  does  used  as  an  agent  in  local  heating  equipment?

9.      Where  pressure  comes  in  high  pressure  heating  system?

10. Where  air  heating  system  usually   used?


Themes  for  reading  independently

1.      Counting  natural  and  artificial  ventilation.

2.      Explaining  air  circulation  system.

3.      Air  conditioning .

4.      Counting  vapor  and  water  heating?