IT related English

 

 

LANGUAGE BASICS

 

 

 

јнглийский €зык
с уклоном на » “

(ќсновы €зыка)

 

”чебное пособие по изучению английского €зыка

дл€ преподавателей колледжей

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“ашкент 2006

ƒанное учебное пособие разработано в рамках узбекско-немецкого проекта Ђ—одействие профессиональному образованиюї и предназначено дл€ преподавателей колледжей по курсу Ђјнглийский €зык, ориентированный на »нформационные технологииї. ѕособие функционально содержит два блока: в первом блоке уроков, состо€щем из 10 разделов, †приведены материалы дл€ обучени€, представл€ющие курс† грамматики английского €зыка; он позвол€ет повторить и закрепить навыки по английской грамматике, с нагл€дными примерами и объ€снени€ми. ¬о втором блоке, состо€щем из 10 разделов, представлен непосредственный практикум зан€тий по английскому €зыку, даны основы †контрол€ и развити€ грамматических, лексических навыков; дл€ работы подобраны тексты из оригинальной литературы по информационным технологи€м, которые по тематике дополн€ют имеющиес€ по этому направлению тексы. †–абота над текстами рассчитана как на коллективно-групповой, так и на индивидуальный метод работы, в режиме взаимокорнтрол€: переводы, грамматические упражнени€,† тексты и вопросы к ним.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

—одержание

 

1

„асть 1. ќсновы грамматики английского €зыка††††

 

 

–аздел 1. »спользование насто€щего времени

 

 

Unit 1. am/ is/ are
(спр€жение глагола "to be" в единственном и множественном числе простого насто€щего времени)

 

 

Unit 2. am/ is/ are (questions)
(спр€жение глагола "to be" в вопросительных предложени€х)

 

 

Unit 3. I am doing (present continuous)
(
насто€щее продолженное врем€)

 

 

Unit 4. Are you -ing? (Present Continuous questions)
(вопросительные предложени€ в насто€щем продолженном времени)

 

 

Unit 5. I do/ work/ like etc. (Present Simple)
(
спр€жение глаголов в простом насто€щем времени)

 

 

Unit 6. I donТt Е (Present Simple negative)
(отрицательные формы глаголов в простом насто€щем времени)

 

 

Unit 7. Do you Е? (Present Simple questions)
(вопросительные предложени€ в простом насто€щем времени)

 

 

Unit 8. I am doing (Present Continuous) and I do (Present Simple)
(смысловое различие предложений с глаголами в простом и продолженном
насто€щем времени)

 

 

–аздел 2. »спользование прошедшего времени

 

 

Unit 9. I watched/ cleaned/ went etc. (Past Simple)
(простое прошедшее врем€)

 

 

Unit 10. I didnТt Е Did you Е? (Past Simple negative and questions)
(отрицательные и вопросительные предложени€ в простом прошедшем времени)

 

 

Unit 11. was/ were
(спр€жение глагола "to be" в единственном и множественном числе простого прошедшего времени)

 

 

Unit 12. I was doing Е (Past Continuous)
(
прошедшее продолженное врем€)

 

 

Unit 13. I was doing Е (Past Continuous) and I did Е (Past Simple)
(смысловое различие предложений в простом и продолженном прошедшем времени)

 

 

Unit 14. have/ has (got)
(
использование have/has и have/has got)

 

 

–аздел 3. »спользование насто€щего совершенного времени

 

 

Unit 15. I have done Е (Present Perfect 1)
(
насто€щее совершенное врем€ 1)

 

 

Unit 16. Have you ever Е (Present Perfect 2)
(
насто€щее совершенное врем€ 2)

 

 

Unit 17. How long have you Е (Present Perfect 3)
(
насто€щее совершенное врем€ 3)

 

 

Unit 18. for since ago
(
предлоги времени)

 

 

Unit 19. I have done Е (Present Perfect) and I did Е (Past Simple)
(смысловые различи€ между предложени€ми в насто€щем совершенном и простом прошедшем времени)

 

 

–аздел 4. »спользование страдательного залога

 

 

Unit 20. it is done/ it was done (passive)
(
страдательный залог)

 

 

–аздел 5. »спользование будущего времени

 

 

Unit 21. What are you doing tomorrow? (Present for the future)
(
насто€щее в будущем)

 

 

Unit 22. IТm going to Е

 

 

Unit 23. will/ shall (1)

 

 

Unit 24. will/ shall (2)

 

 

–аздел 6. ћодальные глаголы

 

 

††††† Unit 25. can and could

 

 

Unit 26. may and might

 

 

Unit 27. must

 

 

Unit 28. should

 

 

Unit 29. have to

 

 

Unit 30. Would you like Е?

 

 

–аздел 7. —мысловые конструкции 1. ѕравильные и неправильные глаголы.

 

 

Unit 31. there is/ there are

 

 

Unit 32. there was/ were/ has been/ will be

 

 

Unit 33. it Е

 

 

Unit 34. go/ going work/ working/ play/ playing etc.

 

 

Unit 35. be/ have/ do in present and past tenses
(
глаголы be, have, do в насто€щих и прошедших временах)

 

 

Unit 36. Regular and irregular verbs
(правильные и неправильные глаголы)

 

 

Unit 37. I am / I donТt etc.

 

 

Unit 38. Have you Е? / Are you Е? / DonТt you Е? etc.

 

 

Unit 39. too / either so am I/ neither do I etc.

Unit 40. Negatives: isnТt/ havenТt/ donТt etc.
(отрицательные предложени€ с вспомогательными глаголами be, have, do)

 

 

–аздел 8. ќбразование вопросительных предложений

 

 

Unit 41. Questions (1) Is it Е? Have you Е? Do they Е? etc.
(вопросительные предложени€ со вспомогательными глаголами be, have, do)

 

 

Unit 42. Questions (2) Who saw you Е? Who did you see?
(
вопросительные предложени€ (2)

 

 

Unit 43. Questions (3) Who is she talking to? What is it like?
(
вопросительные предложени€ (3)

 

 

Unit 44. What Е? Which Е? How Е?

 

 

Unit 45. How long does it take?

 

 

Unit 46. Can you tell me where Е? Do you know what Е? etc.

 

 

–аздел 9. —мысловые конструкции 2.

 

 

Unit 47. to Е (I want to do) and -ing (I enjoy doing)

 

 

Unit 48. I want you to Е/ I told you to Е

 

 

Unit 49. He said that Е/ He told me that Е

 

 

Unit 50. I went to the shop to buy Е

 

 

Unit 51. get

 

 

Unit 52. go

 

 

–аздел 10. ћестоимени€

 

 

Unit 53. I/me, he/ him, they/ them etc.

 

 

Unit 54. my/his/their etc.

 

 

 

Unit 55. Whose is this? ItТs mine.

 

 

Unit 56. I/me/my/mine

 

 

Unit 57. myself/yourself/himself etc.

 

 

Unit 58. -Тs (AnnТs camera/my brotherТs car etc.)

 

 

–аздел 11. ”потребление артиклей и предлогов с именами существительными

 

 

Unit 59. јртиклиa/an
(неопределенный артикль)

 

 

„асть 2. ѕрактикум по закреплению навыков.

 

 

–аздел 1. –абота с текстами

 

 

Unit 1. ACCESS METHODS

 

 

Unit 2. VIRTUAL MEMORY

 

 

Unit 3. ADMINISTRATIVE APPLICATIONS

 

 

Unit 4. AIKEN, HOWARD

 

 

Unit 5. ALGOL

 

 

Unit 6. ALGORITHMICS

 

 

Unit 7. Analog Computer: The End of an Era

 

 

Unit 8. APPLE COMPUTER, INC. Apple's Beginnings

 

 

Unit 9. APPLICATIONS PROGRAMMING

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UNIT 1. The World of TelecommunicationЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕ.......................†† 4

Part I. Text and exercises ЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕ.†††† 4

Part II. DialoguesЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕ††††† 10

 

UNIT 2. Modern ComputerЕЕЕЕЕЕ....ЕЕЕЕЕ†††† 14

Part I. Text and exercises ЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕ.ЕЕЕЕ.††† 14

Lesson 1ЕЕЕЕЕЕЕ.ЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕ†††††† 14

Lesson 2ЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕ.ЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕ†††††† 22

Part II. DialoguesЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕ†† 29

Part III. Humor PageЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕ.ЕЕЕ..††† 39

 

UNIT 3. The† Internet and Modern LifeЕ.ЕЕЕЕЕ.††† 44

Part I. Text and exercises ЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕ.ЕЕ.††† 44

Lesson 1ЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕ.ЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕ†††††† 44

Lesson 2ЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕ.ЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕ†††††† 52

Part II. Humor PageЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕ...ЕЕЕЕ..††† 60

 

 

 

„асть 1. ќсновы грамматики английского €зыка.

–аздел 1. »спользование насто€щего времени

Unit 1. am/ is/ are
(спр€жение глагола "to be" в единственном и множественном числе простого насто€щего времени)

Unit 1. am/ is/ are

 

positive

I

 

am

(I'm)

he

bracket to table

is

(he's)

she

(she's)

it

(it's)

we

bracket to table

are

(we're)

you

(you're)

they

(they're)

negative

I

 

am not

(I'm not)

he

bracket to table

is not

(he's not or he isn't)

she

(she's not or she isn't)

it

(it's not or it isn't)

we

bracket to table

are not

(we're not or we aren't)

you

(you're not or you aren't)

they

(they're not or they aren't)

- Can you close the window, please? I'm cold.
- I'm 32 years old. My sister is 29.
- My brother is a policement. He's very tall.
- John is afraid of dogs.
- It's 10 o'clock. You're late again.
- Ann and I are very good friends.
- My shoes are very dirty. I must clean them.
- I'm tired but I'm not hungry.
- Tom isn't interested in politics.
- Jane isn't at home at the moment. She's at work.
- Those people aren't English. They're Australian.
 
That's = that is There's = there is Here's = here is
  - Thank you. That's very kind of you.
- Look! There's George.
 
See
Unit 2. am/ is/ are (questions)

 

Unit 2. am/ is/ are (questions)
(спр€жение глагола "to be" в единственном и множественном числе простого насто€щего времени в вопросах)

See Unit 1. am/ is/ are
 

Unit 2. am/ is/ are (questions)

 

positive

I

 

am

(I'm)

he

bracket to table

is

(he's)

she

(she's)

it

(it's)

we

bracket to table

are

(we're)

you

(you're)

they

(they're)

question

Am

 

I

Is

reversed bracket to table

he

she

it

Are

reversed bracket to table

we

you

they


- Is your mother at home? No, she's out.
- Is it cold in your room? Yes, a little.
- Those shoes are nice. Are they new?
- Are books expensive in your country?

- How old is Joe? He's 24.
- What colour is your car? It's blue.
- Where are you from? Canada.
- How much are these postcards? They're 40 pence each.
 
what's = what is who's = who is how's = how is where's = where is
 
- What's the time?
- Where's Jill?
- Who's that man?
- How's your father?

 

 

 

 

 

short answer - positive

Yes,

 

I

 

am

 

reversed bracket to table

he

bracket to table

 

Yes,

she

is

 

it

 

 

 

reversed bracket to table

we

bracket to table

 

 

Yes,

you

are

 

 

they

 

 

short answer - negative

No,

 

I'm

 

not

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

reversed bracket to table

he's

bracket to table

 

 

 

reversed bracket to table

he

bracket to table

 

No,

she's

not

or

No,

she

isn't

 

it's

 

 

 

it

 

 

 

reversed bracket to table

we're

bracket to table

 

 

 

reversed bracket to table

we

bracket to table

 

 

No,

you're

not

or

No,

you

aren't

 

 

they're

 

 

 

they

 

 


- Are you tired? Yes, I am.
- Are you hungry? No, I'm not but I'm thirsty.
- Is he English? Yes, he is.
- Is Ann at work today? No, she isn't.
- Is this seat free? Yes, it is.
- Are these your shoes? Yes, they are.
- Am I late? No, you aren't.

Unit 3. I am doing (Present Continuous)
(
насто€щее продолженное врем€)

Unit 3. I am doing (Present Continuous)


- She's eating. She isn't reading.
- It's raining. The sun isn't shining.
- They're running. They aren't walking.
 
The Present Continuous Tense is:

I

 

am

 

(not)

 

-ing

 

I'm working.

he

bracket to table

is

 

(not)

 

-ing

 

Tom is writing a letter.

she

 

She isn't eating.

it

 

The telephone is ringing.

we

bracket to table

are

 

(not)

 

-ing

 

We're having dinner.

you

 

You're not listening to me.

they

 

The children are doing their homework.


See
Unit 1 for the short forms 'm/ 's/ 're/ isn't/ aren't

 

something is happening now


- Please be quiet. I'm working. (= I'm working now)
- Look! Joy is wearing her new hat. (= she's wearing it now)
- Don't go out now. It's raining.
- "Where are the children?" "They're playing in the garden."
- (on the telephone) We're having dinner now. Can you phone later?
- You can turn the television off. I'm not watching it.
 
come - coming, smoke - smoking, wtite - writing
run - running, sit - sitting, swim - swimming
lie - lying, die - dying

See
Unit 4. Are you -ing? (Present Continuous questions)
See
Unit 8. I am doing (Present Continuous) and I do (Present Simple)
See
Unit 21. What are you doing tomorrow? (Present for the Future)

 

 

Unit 4. Are you -ing? (Present Continuous questions)
(вопросительные предложени€ в насто€щем продолженном времени)


See Unit 3. I am doing (Present Continuous)

positive

I

 

am

-ing

he

bracket to table

is

 

she

-ing

it

 

we

bracket to table

are

 

you

-ing

they

 

question

Am

 

I

-ing?

Is

reversed bracket to table

he

 

she

-ing?

it

 

Are

reversed bracket to table

we

 

you

-ing?

they

 

Unit 4. Are you -ing? (Present Continuous questions)

-          Are you feeling okay? Yes, I'm feeling fine.
- Is it raining? Yes, take an umbrella.
- Why are you wearing a coat? It's not cold today.
- What's Roy doing? He's cooking the dinner.
- What are the children doing? They're playing in the garden.
- Look! There's Jan. Where's she doing?
 

 

 

The word order in these questions is:

 

is/are

+

subject

+

-ing

 

Is

 

he

 

working today?

 

Is

 

Mr.Smith

 

working today?

Where

are

 

they

 

going?

Where

are

 

those people

 

going? (not Where are going those people?)

 

positive

Yes,

 

I

 

am

 

reversed bracket to table

he

bracket to table

 

Yes,

she

is

 

it

 

 

 

reversed bracket to table

we

bracket to table

 

 

Yes,

you

are

 

 

they

 

 

negative

No,

 

I'm

 

not

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

reversed bracket to table

he's

bracket to table

 

 

 

reversed bracket to table

he

bracket to table

 

No,

she's

not

or

No,

she

isn't

 

it's

 

 

 

it

 

 

 

reversed bracket to table

we're

bracket to table

 

 

 

reversed bracket to table

we

bracket to table

 

 

No,

you're

not

or

No,

you

aren't

 

 

they're

 

 

 

they

 

 

-      Are you listening to the radio? Yes, I am.
- Is Tom working today? Yes, he is.
- Is it raining? No, it isn't.
- Are your friends staying at a hotel?
No, they aren't.

 

Unit 5. I do/ work/ like etc. (Present Simple)
(спр€жение глаголов в простом насто€щем времени)

Unit 5. I do/ work/ like etc. (Present Simple)

They have a lot of books.
They read a lot.

He's eating an ice-cream.
He likes ice-cream.


They read/ I like/ he likes etc.
= The Present Simple

I/ we/ you/ they

do

read

like

work

play

watch

he/ she/ it

does

reads

likes

works

plays

watches

Remember:

he/ she/ it + -s

I live in London but my brother lives in Scotland

have has

I have a lot of books but he hasn't any books.

-es after -s/ -ch/ -sh

pass → pases

watch → watches

finish → finishes

also:

do → does

go → goes

 

 

study → studies

carry → carries

 


We use the Present Simple for things that are true in general, or for things that happen sometimes or all the time:
 
- I like big cities.
- The shops open at 9 o'clock and close at 5:30.
- He works very hard. He starts at 7:30 and finishes at 8 o'clock in the evening.
- The Earth goes round the Sun.
- We do a lot of different things in our free time.
- She's very clever. She speaks four languages.
- It costs a lot of money to stay at luxury hotels.
 
We use the Present Simple with always/ never/ often/ sometimes/ usually:
 
- He always gets up at 7 o'clock.
- I usually go to work by car but I sometimes walk.
- Jack eats very little. He never has breakfast in the morning.
- The weather here is not very good. It often rains.
 
See
Unit 6. I don't Е (Present Simple negative)
See
Unit 7. Do you Е? (Present Simple questions)
See
Unit 8. I am doing (Present Continuous) and I do (Present Simple)
See
Unit 88. Word order (2)

 

Unit 6. I don't Е (Present Simple negative)
(
ќтрицательные формы глаголов в простом насто€щем времени)


See Unit 5. I do/ work/ like etc. (Present Simple)
 
The Present Simple negative is don't/ doesn't + verb
 

Unit 6. I don't Е (Present Simple negative)

 

She doesn't smoke.

He doesn't work.

 

positive

i
we
you
they

work
play
do
like

he
she
it

works
plays
does
likes

negative

i
we
you
they

do not
(don't)

work
play
do
like


he
she
it

does not
(doesn't)

- I drink coffee but I don't drink tea.
- Sue drinks tea but she doesn't drink coffee.
- You don't speak English very well.
- They don't watch television very often.
- Rice doesn't grow in the cold countries.
- We don't know many people in this town.
 
We use don't/ doesn't + infinitive (like/ do/ speak/ work etc.):
 
- I don't like washing the car. I don't do it very often.
- She speaks Spanish but she doesn't speak Italian.
(not she doesn't speaks)
 
Remember:

I/ we/ you/ they

 

don't

 

I don't like football.

he/ she/ it

 

doesn't

 

He doesn't like football.

-      I don't like Fred and Fred doesn't like me. (not Fred don't like)
- My car doesn't use much petrol. (not my car don't use)
- Sometimes he is late but it doesn't happen very often.
 
See Unit 7. Do you Е? (Present Simple questions)

 

 

 

Unit 7. Do you Е? (Present Simple questions)
(¬опросительные предложени€ в простом насто€щем времени)


See
Unit 5. I do/ work/ like etc. (Present Simple)
See
Unit 6. I don't Е (Present Simple negative)
 
We use do/does in Present Simple questions:
 

positive

i
we
you
they

work
play
do
like

he
she
it

works
plays
does
like s

question

do

I
we
you
they

work?
play?
do?
like?

does


he
she
it

Unit 7. Do you Е? (Present Simple questions)

 

The word order in these questions is:

 

do/does

+ subject

+

infinitive

 

 

Do

you

 

work

on Saturdays?

Where

do

your parents

 

live?

 

 

Do

they

 

like

music?

How often

do

you

 

wash

your hair?

What

do

you

usually

do

at weekends?

 

Does

Chris

often

play

tennis?

How much

does

it

 

cost

to fly to Rome?

What

does

this word

 

mean?

 


What do you do? = What's your job?:
 
- What do you do? I work in a bank.
 
Remember:  

do

 

I/ we/ you/ they

 

-

 

Do they like music?

does

 

he/ she/ it

 

-

 

Does he like music?



short answers

Yes,

reversed bracket to table

I/we/you/they

do

he/she/it

does

No,

reversed bracket to table

I/we/you/they

don't

he/she/it

doesn't

- Do you smoke? No, I don't.
- Do they speak English? Yes, they do.
- Does he work hard? Yes, he does.
- Does your sister live in London? No, she doesn't.

See
Unit 8. I am doing (Present Continuous) and I do (Present Simple)

 

Unit 8. I am doing (Present Continuous) and I do (Present Simple)
(—мысловое различие предложений с глаголами в простом и продолженном насто€щем времени)


See Unit 3. I am doing (Present Continuous)
See
Unit 4. Are you -ing? (Present Continuous questions)
See
Unit 5. I do/ work/ like etc. (Present Simple)
See
Unit 6. I don't Е (Present Simple negative)
See
Unit 7. Do you Е? (Present Simple questions)
 

Jim is watching television.
He is not playing the guitar.
 
But Jim has a guitar.
He often plays it and he plays very well.
 
Jim plays the guitar
but he is not playing the guitar now
.

Unit 8. I am doing (Present Continuous) and I do (Present Simple)


Is he playing the guitar? No, he isn't. (Present Continuous)
Does he play the guitar? Yes, he does. (Present Simple)
 
Present Continuous (I am doing) - now, at the time of speaking:
 
Present Continuous (I am doing)
 
- Please be quiet. I am working.
- Tom is having a shower at the moment.
- Take an umbella. It's raining.
- You can turn off the television. I'm not watching it.
- Why are you under the table? What are you doing?
 
Present Simple (I do) - in general, all the time or sometimes:
 
Present Simple (I do)
 
- I work every day from 9 o'clock until 5.00.
- Tom has a shower every morning.
- It rains a lot in winter.
- I don't watch television very often.
- What do you ususally do at the weekend?
 
Do not use these verbs in the present continuous (I am -ing):
want like love hate need prefer depend know mean understand believe remember forget
 
Use the Present Simple only (I want/do you like? etc.):
- I'm tired. I want to go home. (not I'm wanting)
- Do you know that girl? Yes, but I forget her name.
- I don't understand. What do you mean?

 

 

–аздел 2. »спользование прошедшего времени

Unit 9. I watched/ cleaned/ went etc. (Past Simple)
(простое прошедшее врем€)

I watch television every evening. (Present Simple)
I watched television yesterday evening.
(Past Simple)


watched is the Past Simple:

I/ we/ you/ they/
he/ she/ it

watched

Unit 9. I watched/ cleaned/ went etc. (Past Simple)


 
The Past Simple is often -ed.
For example:
 

word - worked

clean - cleaned

start - started

stay - stayed

live - lived

dance - danced


These verbs are regular verbs.
 
- I clean my teeth every morning. This morning I cleaned my teeth.
- Terry worked in a bank from 1981 to 1986.
- Yesterday it rained all morning. It stopped at launchtime.
- We enjoyed the party last night. We danced a lot and talked to a lot of people.
- The party finished at midnight.
 

study - studied

marry - married

stop - stopped

plan - planned


Some verbs are irregular (not regular). The Past Simple is not -ed. Here are some important irregular verbs
 

begin
break
bring
build
buy
catch
come
do
drink
eat

 

began
broke
brought
built
bought
caught
came
did
drank
ate

fall
find
fly
forget
get
give
go
have
hear
know

 

fell
found
flew
forgot
got
gave
went
had
heard
knew

leave
lose
make
meet
pay
put
read
ring
say
see

 

left
lost
made
met
paid
put
read (/red/)
rang
said
saw

sell
sit
sleep
speak
stand
take
tell
thing
win
write

 

sold
sat
slept
spoke
stood
took
told
thought
won
wrote


- I usually get up early but this morning I got up at 9.30.
- We did a lot of housework yesterday.
- Caroline went to the cinema three times last week.
- Mr Todd came into the room, took off this coat and sad down.
 
See Unit 10. I didn'tЕ Did you Е? (Past Simple negative and questions)

 

 

Unit 10. I didn't Е Did you Е? (Past Simple negative and questions)
(отрицательные и вопросительные предложени€ в простом прошедшем времени)


See
Unit 9. I watched/ cleaned/ went etc. (Past Simple)
 
We use did in Past Simple negatives and questions:
 

infinitive

watch
clean
play
do
go
have
begin

positive

I
we
you
they
he
she
it

watched
cleaned
played
did
went
had
began

negative

I
we
you
they
he
she
it

did not
(didn't)

watch
clean
play
do
go
have
begin

question

did

I
we
you
they
he
she
it

watch?
clean?
play?
do?
go?
have?
begin?


do/does (Present) - did (Past):
 
- I don't watch television very often.
- I didn't watch television yesterday.
- Does she often go out?
- Did she go out last night?
 
We use did/didn't + infinitive (watch/ clean/do etc.):
 

I watched
he went

but
but

I didn't watch
did he go?

(not I didn't watched)
(not did he went?)


- I played tennis yesterday but I didn't win.
- Don didn't have breakfast this morning. (not Don hadn't breakfast)
- They went to the cinema but they didn't enjoy the film.
- We didn't do much work yesterday.
 
Note the word order in questions with did:
 

 

 
What
How
Where

did

Did
did
did
did

+ subject

Sue
you
the accident
your parents

+ infinitive

give
do
happen?
go

 

you a birthday present?
yesterday evening?
 
for their holidays?


short answers

short answer - positive

Yes,

reversed bracket to table

I/ we/ you/ they

bracket to table

did.

he/ she/ it

short answer - negative

No,

reversed bracket to table

I/ we/ you/ they

bracket to table

didn't.

he/ she/ it

-      Did you see Joe yesterday? No, I didn't.
- Did it rain on Sunday? Yes, it did.
- Did Helen come to the party? No, she didn't.
- Did your friends have a good holiday? Yes, they did.

 

Unit 11. was/ were
(спр€жение глагола "to be" в единственном и множественном числе простого прошедшего времени)

Unit 11. was/ were

Now Charlie is at work.
At midnight last night he wasn't at work.
He was in bed.
He was asleep.


 
am/is (present) - was (past):

- I am tired.
- Is she at home (now)?
- The weather is nice today.

I was tired last night.
Was she at home yesterday morning?
The weather was nice yesterday.


are (present) - were (past):

- You are late (now).
- They aren't here (now)?

You were late yesterday.
They weren't here last Sunday.

 

positive

I
he
she
it

was

we
you
they

were

negative

I
he
she
it

was not
(wasn't)

we
you
they

were not
(weren't)

question

was

I?
he?
she?
it?

were

we?
you?
they?


- Last year she was 22, so she is 23 now.
- When I was a child, I was afraid of dogs.
- We were tired after the journey but we weren't hungry.
- The hotel was very comfortable and it wasn't expensive.
- Where were you at 3 o'clock yesterday afternoon?.
- Was the weather good when you were on holiday?
- Those shoes are nice.
Were they expensive?
- Why was he angry yesterday?
 
short answers

short answer - positive

Yes,

reversed bracket to table

I/ he/ she/ it

was

we/ you/ they

were

short answer - negative

No,

reversed bracket to table

I/ he/ she/ is

wasn't.

we/ you/ they

weren't.

-      Were you late? No, I wasn't.
- Was Ted at work yesterday? Yes, he was.
- Were they at the party?
No, they weren't.

 

Unit 12. I was doing (Past Continuous)
(
прошедшее продолженное врем€)

Now it is 6 o'clock.
Sarah is at home.
She is watching television.
At 4 o'clock she wasn't at home.
She was at the sports club.
She was playing tennis.
She wasn't watching television.

Unit 12. I was doing (Past Continuous)


 

Unit 12. She was playing (Past Continuous)


 
was/ were -ing (doing/ playing/ working etc.) is the Past Continuous tense:
 

positive

I
he
she
it

was -ing

we
you
they

were -ing

negative

I
he
she
it

was not
(wasn't)

-ing

we
you
they

were not
(weren't)

-ing

question

was

I
he
she
it

-ing?

were

we
you
they

-ing?


- What were you doing at 11.30 yesterday? I was working.
- What did he say? I don't know. I wasn't listening.
- It was raining, so we didn't go out.
- In 1980 they were living in Canada.
- Today she's wearing a skirt, but yesterday she was wearing trousers.
- I woke up early yesterday. It was a beautiful morning. The sun was shining and the birds were singing.
 
am/ is/ are -ing (Present) - was/ were -ing (Past):

- I'm working (now).
- It isn't raining (now).
- What are you doing (now)?

I was working at 10.30 last night.
It wasn't raining when we went out.
What were you doing at 3 o'clock?

See Unit 13. I was doing (Past Continuous) and I did (Past Simple)

 

 

Unit 13. I was doing Е (Past Continuous) and I did Е (Past Simple)
(смысловое различие предложений в простом и продолженном прошедшем времени)

Unit 13. I was doing Е (Past Continuous) and I did Е(Past Simple)


What happened? The phone rang. (Past Simple)
What was Jack doing when the phone rang?
He was reading a book. (Past Continuous)
What did he do when the phone rang?
He stopped reading and answered the phone. (Past Simple)

Jack began reading before the phone rang.
So:
When the phone rang, he was reading.
 

Unit 13. I was doing Е (Past Continuous) and I did Е(Past Simple)


- Jack was reading the newspaper when the phone rang.
but Jack read the newspaper yesterday.
- Were you watching television when I phoned you?
but Did you watch the film on television last night?
- I started work at 9.00 and finished at 4.30. At 2.30 I was working.
- When we went out, it was raining. (= it started raining before we went out)
- I saw Lucy and Tom this morning. They were standing at the bus-stop.
- Joy fell asleep while she was reading.

Unit 14. have/ has (got)
(
использование have/has и have/has got)

You can say have or have got, has or has got:

I

bracket to table

have

=

I

bracket to table

have got

(I've got)

we

we

(we've got)

you

you

(you've got)

they

they

(they've got)

he

bracket to table

has

=

I

bracket to table

has got

(he's got)

she

she

(she's got)

it

it

(it's got)

Unit 14. have/has (got)
She's got a headache.
or She has a headache.

- I've got blue eyes. (or I have got blue eyes.)
- Tim has got two sisters. (or Tim has two sisters.)
- They like animals. They've got a horse, three dogs and six cats.
- This car has got four doors.
- I don't feel very well.
I've got a headache.
 

negative

I
we
you
they

have not
(haven't)

got

he
she
it

has not
(hasn't)

question

have

I
we
you
they

got?

has

he
she
it

short answers

Yes,
No,

I
we
you
they

have.
haven't.

Yes,
No,

he
she
it

has.
hasn't.


- I've got a motor-bike but I have't got a car.
- Mr and Mrs Harrison haven't got any children.
- It's a nice house but it hasn't got a garden.
- "Have you got a camera?" "Yes, I have"
- "What have you got in your bag?" "Nothing. It's empty."
- "Has Ann got a car?" "Yes, she has".
- What kind of car has she got?
 
In negatives and questions you can also use do/does + have:
 
- They don't have any children. (= They haven't got any children.)
- It's a nice house but it doesn't have a garden. (= it hasn't got a garden)
- Does Ann got a car? (= Has Ann got a car?)
- How much money do you have? (= How much money have you got?)
 
The past is had. In negatives and questions we use did + have
 
See
Unit 9. I watched/ cleaned/ went etc. (Past Simple)
See
Unit 10. I didnТt Е Did you Е? (Past Simple negative and questions)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

–аздел 3. »спользование насто€щего совершенного времени

Unit 15. I have done (Present Perfect I)
(
насто€щее совершенное врем€ 1)

Unit 15. I have done (Present Perfect I)
His shoes are dirty.

Unit 15. I have done (Present Perfect I)
He is cleaning his shoes.

Unit 15. I have done (Present Perfect I)
He has cleaned his shoes.
(= his shoes are clean now)

Unit 15. I have done (Present Perfect I)
They are at home.

Unit 15. I have done (Present Perfect I)
They are going out.

Unit 15. I have done (Present Perfect I)
They have gone out.
(= his are not at home now)


has cleaned/ have gone etc. is the Present Perfect (have/ has + Past Participle*):

I

bracket to table

have ('ve)
have not (haven't)

cleaned

we

finished

you

done

they

been

he

bracket to table

has ('s)
has not (hasn't)

bought

she

taken

it

begun

have

another bracket to table

I

cleaned?

we

finished?

you

done?

they

been?

has

another bracket to table

he

bought?

she

taken?

it

begun?


We use the Present Perfect for an action in the past with a result now:
 
- I've lost my passport. (= I can't find my passport now)
- She's (= she has) gone to bed. (= she is in bed now)
- We've bought a new car. (= we have a new car now)
- It's Kay's birthday tomorrow and I haven't bought her a present.
- "Bob is on holiday." "Oh, where has he gone?"
- "Are they still having dinner?"
"No, they've finished."
 

* The Past Participle of regular verbs is -ed:
clean
have cleaned finish have finished stop have stopped
 
The Past Participle of irregular verbs is sometimes the same as
the Past Simple and sometimes different. For example:
the same: lose
have lost make have make have have had
different: do
have done see have seen write have written
 †


See
Unit 16. Have you ever Е (Present Perfect 2)
See
Unit 17. How long have you Е (Present Perfect 3)
See
Unit 19. I have done Е (Present Perfect) and I did Е (Past Simple)

 

Unit 16. Have you ever Е? (Present Perfect 2)
(
насто€щее совершенное врем€ 2)


See
Unit 15 I have done (Present Perfect 1)
 

Unit 16. Have you ever Е? (Present Perfect 2)


We use the Present Perfect have been/ have played/ have done etc. when we talk about a time from the past until now - for example, your life:
 

Unit 16. Have you ever Е? (Present Perfect 2)


- "Have you been to France?" (in your life) "No, I haven't."
- I've been to Canada but I haven't been to the United States.
- She is an interesting person. She has done many different jobs and has visited many countries.
- I've seen that woman before but I can't remember when.
- How many times has Brazil won the World Cup?
- "Have you read this book?" "Yes, I've read it twice." (= two times)
 
You can use the Present Perfect + ever (in questions) and never:
 
- "Has Ann ever been to Australia?" "No, never."
- "Have you ever played golf?" "Yes, once." (= one time)
- My mother has never travelled by air.
- I've never ridden a horse.
 
gone and been
 

Unit 16. Have you ever Е? (Present Perfect 2)

Unit 16. Have you ever Е? (Present Perfect 2)

He's gone to Spain.
(= he is in Spain now)

He's been to Spain.
(= he went to Spain but now he is back)


Compare:
- I can't find Susan. Where has she gone? (= Where is she now?)
- Oh, hello, Susan. I was looking for you. Where have you been?
 
See
Unit 19 I have done (Present Perfect) and I did (Past Simple)

 

Unit 17. How long have you Е? (Present Perfect 3)
(насто€щее совершенное врем€ 3)

Jill is on holiday in London.
She arrived in London on Monday.
Today is Friday.
How long has she been in London?

She has been in London

reversed bracket to table

since Monday.
for four days.

 

 

Unit 17. How long have you Е? (Present Perfect 3)


 

 

She is in London now.

 

 

(is = present)

but

She has been in London

reversed bracket to table

since Monday.
for four days.

(has been = Present Perfect)

 

 

 

 


 

Unit 17. How long have you Е? (Present Perfect 3)


Compare:

Present Simple

Harry is in Canada.
 
Are you married?
 
Do you know Sarah?
 
 
Linda lives in London.
 
We have a car.
 

but

Present Perfect

He has been in Canada since April.
(not He is in Canada since April)
How long have you been married?
(not How long are you married?)
How long have you known her?
(not How long do you know her?)
I've known her for a long time.
How long has she lived in London?
She has lived there all her life.
How long have you had your car?
We've had it for a year.

 

 

 

Present Continuous

I'm learning German.
 
It's raining.

but

Present Perfect Continuous (have been -ing)

How long have you been learning German?
I've been learning German for six weeks.
It's been (= it has been) raining since I got up this morning.

 

 

See Unit 18 for since ago

 

Unit 18. for since ago
(
предлоги времени)

See Unit 17 How long have you Е (Present Perfect 3)
 
for and since
We use for and since to say how long:
 

Unit 18. for since ago

for

four days
an hour
a week
a month
five years

ten minutes
two hours
three weeks
six months
a long time

 

 


We use since + the start of the period (Monday/ 9 o'clock etc.):
 

Unit 18. for since ago

since

Monday
9 o'clock
24 July
December
1985

Wednesday
12.30
10 October
Christmas
I got up

 

 


Compare:
- Barry has been in Canada since January. (= from January to now)
- Barry has been in Canada for six months. (not since six months)
- I've known her since 1980. (= from 1980 to now)
- I've known her for a long time. (not since a long time)
 
See
Unit 92 from Е to until since for
 
ago = before now:
- Susan started her new job two weeks ago. (= two weeks before now)
- "When did Tom go out?" "Ten minutes ago." (= ten minutes before now)
- I had dinner an hour ago. (= an hour before now)
- Life was very different a hundred years ago.
 
We use ago with the Past Simple (did/ had/ started etc.)
 
Compare ago and for:
- When did she arrive in London?
- She arrived in London four days ago.
- How long has she been in London?
- She has been in London for four days.

 

 

 

 

Unit 19. I have done Е (Present Perfect) and I did Е (Past Simple)
(смысловые различи€ между предложени€ми в насто€щем совершенном и простом прошедшем времени)

See Unit 15 I have done Е (Present Perfect 1)
See
Unit 16 Have you ever Е (Present Perfect 2)
See
Unit 17 How long have you Е (Present Perfect 3)
See
Unit 9 I watched/ cleaned/ went etc. (Past Simple)
See
Unit 10 I didnТt Е Did you Е? (Past Simple negative and questions)
 
We use the Past Simple (did/ arrived/ saw/ was etc.) with a finished time (yesterday/ last week/ in 1986/ six months ago etc.):
 

past + finished time

 

We arrived

yesterday
last week
at 3 o'clock
in 1986
six months ago

 

Unit 19. I have done Е (Present Perfect) and I did Е (Past Simple)


We do not use the Present Perfect (have done / have arrived / have been etc.) with a finished time:
 
- I saw Jack yesterday. (not I have seen Jack yesterday)
- Where were you last night? (not Where have you been last night?)
- We didn't have a holiday last year. (not We haven't had)
- I got up at 7.15. I washed, dressed and then I had breakfast.
- William Shakespeare (1564-1616) was a writer. He wrote many plays and poems.
(not Е has been a writer Е has written many plays)
 
Use the Past Simple to ask When? or What time?:
 
- When did they arrive?
(not When have they arrived?)
Compare:

Present Perfect

I have lost my key.
(= I can't find it now)
Bill has gone home.
(= he isn't here now)
Have you seen Ann?
(= where is she now?)
Unit 19. I have done Е (Present Perfect) and I did Е (Past Simple)
Have you ever been to Spain?
(= in your life, until now)
My friend is a writer.
He has written many book.
We've lived in Singapore for six years.
(we live there now)

but

Past Simple

I lost my key yesterday.
 
Bill went home ten minutes ago.
 
When did you see Ann?
 
Unit 19. I have done Е (Present Perfect) and I did Е (Past Simple)
Did you go to Spain last year?
 
Shakespeare wrote many plays and poems.
 
We lived in Glasgow for six years
but now we live in Singapore.

 

 

 

 

–аздел 4. »спользование страдательного залога

Unit 20. it is done/ it was done (passive)
(страдательный залог)

Unit 20. it is done/ it was done (passive)


The room is cleaned every day.
The room was cleaned yesterday.


Compare:
 
Somebody cleans the room every day. (active)
The room is cleaned every day. (passive)
Somebody cleaned the room yesterday. (active)
The room was cleaned yesterday.
(passive)
The Passive is:
 

 

 

 

Past Participle

present

am/ is/ are

 

 

(not)

was/ were

 

+

cleaned

 

done

exported

made

damaged

broken

 

past


The Past Participle of regular verbs is -ed (cleaned/ damaged etc.). For a list of irregular past participles (made/ seen etc.), see List of irregular verbs
 

- Butter is made from milk.
- Oranges are imported into Britain.
- How often are these rooms cleaned?
- I am never invited to parties.
- This house was built 100 years ago.
- These houses were built 100 years ago.
- When was the telephone invented?
- I wasn't invited to the party last week.
- Six people were injured in the accident yesterday.

Unit 20. it is done/ it was done (passive)


We say was/ were born:
- I was born in London in 1958. (not I am born)
- Where were you born?
 
passive + by Е:
- We were woken up by the noise. (= The noise woke us up.)
- The telephone was invented by Alexander Bell in 1876.
- My brother was bitten by a dog last week.

 

–аздел 5. »спользование будущего времени

Unit 21. What are you doing tomorrow? (Present for the future)
(
насто€щее в будущем)

Unit 21. What are you doing tomorrow? (Present for the future)

Unit 21. What are you doing tomorrow? (Present for the future)

They are playing tennis now.

She is playing tennis tomorrow.


We use am/ is/ are -ing (Present Continuous) for something happening now (see
Unit 3 I am doing (present continuous) and Unit 4 Are you -ing? (Present Continuous questions)):
- "Where are George and Sue?" "They're playing tennis in the park."
- Please be quiet. I'm working.
 
We also use am/ is/ are -ing for the future (tomorrow / next week etc.):
- Carol is playing tennis tomorrow.
- I'm not working next week.
 
I am doing something tomorrow = I have arranged to do something, I have a plan to do something:

- Alice is going to the dentist on Friday.
(= she has an appointment with the dentist)
- They are going to a concert tomorrow evening.
(they have tickets for the concert)
- Are you meeting Bill this evening?
(= have you and Bill arranged to meet?)
- What are you doing at the weekend?
- I'm not going out tonight. I'm staying at home.

Unit 21. What are you doing tomorrow? (Present for the future)


You can also say "I'm going to do something" (see
Unit 22 IТm going to Е).
 
Do not use the Present Simple (I go/ do you go? etc.) for arrangements:
- I'm going out this evening. (not I go)
- Are you going out tonight? (not do you go)
- Ann isn't coming to the party next week. (not Ann doesn't come)
 
But we use the Present Simple for timetables, programmes, trains etc.:
- The concert starts at 7.30.
- What time does the train leave?
 
Study the difference:

- I'm going to a concert this evening.
The concert starts at 7.30.
I'm going - Present Continuous: usually for people
The concert starts - Present Simple: for programmes, trains etc.

Unit 21. What are you doing tomorrow? (Present for the future)

 

Unit 22. IТm going to Е

Unit 22. IТm going to Е


She is going to watch TV this evening.
We use am/ is/ are going to Е for the future:

 

 

I
he/ she/ it
we/ you/ they

am
is
 (not)
are

going to

do Е
drink Е
watch Е

 

 

 


 

am
is
are

I
he/ she/ it
we/ you/ they

going to

buy Е?
eat Е?
wear Е?

 

 

 


I am going to do something = I have decided to do something, my intention is to do something:
 

Unit 22. IТm going to Е


- I'm going to buy some books tomorrow.
- Sarah is going to sell her car.
- I'm not going to have breakfast this morning. I'm not hungry.
- What are you going to wear to the party on Saturday?
- "Your hair is dirty." "Yes, I know. I'm going to wash it."
- Are you going to invite John to your party?
 
You can say that something is going to happen when it is clear now that it is sure to happen:
 

- Look at the sky! It's going to rain.
(black clouds now
rain)
- Oh dear! It's 9 o'clock and I'm not ready.
I'
m going to be late.
(9 o'clock now and not ready late)

Unit 22. IТm going to Е


We also use the Present Continuous (I am -ing) for the future, usually for arrangements (see
Unit 21 What are you doing tomorrow? (Present for the future)):
- I am playing tennis with Jack tomorrow.

 

Unit 23. will/ shall (1)

Unit 23. will/ shall(1)

Bill is 24 years old now.
Last year he was 23.
Next year he will be 25.


will + infinitive (will be / will win / will come etc.):

positive and negative

I/ we/ you/ they
he/ she/ it

bracket to table

will ('ll)
will not (won't)

be
win
come
eat

 

 

question

will

reversed bracket to table

I/ we/ you/ they
he/ she/ it

be?
win?
come?
eat?

 

 

We use will for the future (tomorrow / next week etc.):
- She travels a lot. Today she is in London. Tomorrow she'll be in Rome. Next week she'll be in Tokyo.
- Telephone me this evening. I'll be at home.
- Leave the old bread in the garden. The birds will eat it.
- We'll probably go out this evening.
- Will you be at home this evening?
- I won't be here tomorrow. (= I will not be here)
- Don't drink coffee before you go to bed. You won't sleep.
 
We often say I think Е willЕ
- I think Diana will pass the exam.
- I don't think it will rain this afternoon.
- Do you think the examination will be difficult?
 
But do not use will for things you have already arranged to do or decided to do (see
Unit 21 What are you doing tomorrow? (Present for the future)):
- We're going to the theatre on Saturday. (not we will go)
- Are you working tomorrow? (not will you work)
 
shall
You can say I shall (= I will) and we shall (= we will):

- I shall be late tommorrow.
- I think we shall win.

or

I will (I'll) be late tomorrow.
I think we will (we'll) win.

 

 


But don't use shall with you/ they/ he/ she/ it. (not he shall be late)
See
Unit 24 will/ shall (2)

 

Unit 24. will/ shall (2)


See
Unit 23 will/ shall (1)

Unit 24. will/ shall(2)

Unit 24. will/ shall(2)


You can use I'llЕ (= I will) when you offer or decide to do something:
- "My case is very heavy." "I'll carry it for you."
- "I'll phone you tomorrow, okay?" "Okay, goodbye."
 
We often say I think I'll/ I don't think I'llЕ when we decide to do something:
- I'm tired. I think I'll go to bed early tonight.
- It's a nice day. I think I'll sit in the garden.
- It's raining. I don't think I'll go out.
 
Don't use the Present Simple (I go/ I phone etc.) in sentences like these:
- I'll phone you tomorrow, okay? (not I phone you)
- I think I'll go to bed early. (not I go to bed)
 
Don't use I'llЕ for something you decided before (see
Unit 21 What are you doing tomorrow? (Present for the future)):
- I'm working tomorrow. (not I'll work)
- I'm going to watch TV tonight. (not I'll watch)
- What are you doing at the weekend?
(not what will you do)
 
Shall I Е? / Shall we Е?
 

Unit 24. will/ shall(2)


Shall I / Shall we Е? = Do you think this is a good thing to do? Do you think this is a good idea?
- It's warm in this room. Shall I open the window?
- "Shall I phone you this evening?" "Yes, please."
- I'm going to a party tonight. What shall I wear?
- It's a nice day. Shall we go for a walk?
- Where shall we go for our holidays this year?
- "Let's go out this evening." "Okay, what time shall we meet?" (Let's see
Unit 48 I want you to Е/ I told you to Е)

 

–аздел 6. ћодальные глаголы

Unit 25. can and could

Unit 25. can and could
He can play the piano.

Unit 25. can and could
 


can + infinitive (can do / can play / can come etc.):

positive and negative

I/ we/ you/ they
he/ she/ it

bracket to table

can
can't (cannot)

do
play
come
see

 

 

question

can

reversed bracket to table

I/ we/ you/ they
he/ she/ it

do?
play?
come?
see?

 

 


I can do something. = I know how to do it or it is possible for me to do it:
- I can play the piano. My brother can play the piano too.
- Ann can speak Italian but she can't speak Spanish.
- "Can you swim?" "Yes, but not very well."
- "Can you change twenty pounds?" "I'm sorry I can't."
- Bill and Jenny can't come to the party next week.
 

In the past (yesterday / last week etc.):

can (do)
can't (do)

could (do)
couldn't (do)

 

 

 


- When I was young, I could run very fast.
- Before she came to Britain, she couldn't speak English. Now she can speak English very well.
- I was tired last night but I couldn't sleep.
- Bill and Jenny couldn't come to the party last week.
 

We use Can you Е ? or Could you Е ? when we ask people to do things:
- "Can (or Could) you open the door, please?" "Yes, sure."
- Can (or Could) you tell me the time, please?

We use Can I Е ? when we ask if it is okay to do something:
- "Tom, can I take your umbrella?" "Yes, of course."
- (on the phone) Hello. Can I speak to Gary, please?

We use Can I have Е ? to ask for something:
- (in a shop) Can I have these postcards, please?

 

Unit 26. may and might

Unit 26. may and might
I may go to Paris.
(= Perhaps I will go to Paris.)

Unit 26. may and might
It might rain.
(= Perhaps it will rain.)


may or might + infinitive (may go / might go / may play / might play etc.):
 

I/ we/ you/ they
he/ she/ it

bracket to table

may (not)
might (not)

be
go
play
come

 


may/ might = it is possible that something will happen.
You can use may or might:
- I may go to the cinema this evening.
or I might go to the cinema this evening. (= perhaps I will go)
- "When is Kay going to phone you?" "I don't know. She may phone this afternoon."
- Take an umbrella with you. It might rain.
- "Do you think Jack will come to the party?" "I'm not sure. He may." (= He may come.)
- "Are you going out tonight?" "I might." (= I might go out.)
 
Study the difference:
- I'm playing tennis tomorrow. (sure)
I may play tennis tomorrow. (possible)
- Barbara is going to France next week. (sure)
Barbara might go to France next week. (possible)
 
The negative is may not or might not:
- I might not go to work tomorrow. (= perhaps I will not go)
- Sue may not come to the party. (= perhaps she will not come)
 
May I Е? = Is it okay to do something?:
- May I smoke? (= Is it okay if I smoke? / Can I smoke?)
- "May I sit here?"
"Yes, of course."

 

Unit 27. must

Unit 27. must

must + infinitive (must do / must see etc.):

I/ we/ you/ they
he/ she/ it

bracket to table

must

do
go
stop
write

 


Use must when you think it is necessary or very important to do something:
- The windows are very dirty. I must clean them.
- It's a fantastic film. You must see it.
- We must go to the bank today. We haven't got any money.
 
must is present or future:
- I must go to the bank now.
- I must go to the bank tomorrow.
 
For the past (yesterday / last week etc.), we use had to + infinitive (had to go / had to do / had to write etc.):
- I had to go to the bank yesterday. (= It was necessary for me to go to the bank.)
- We had to walk home last night. There was no bus.
See Unit 29 have to Е
 
mustn't (must not)

I mustn't do it = it is important not to do it, it is a bad thing to do:
 
- I must hurry. I mustn't be late.
- I mustn't forget to phone George. (=1 must remember)
- You mustn't walk on the grass. (= Don't walk on the grass.)

Unit 27. must


needn't (need not)
I needn't do it = it is not necessary to do it, I don't need to do it:
- I needn't clean the windows. They aren't dirty.
- You needn't go to the bank. I can give you some money.
 
You can also say don't need to Е (= needn't):
- I don't need to clean the windows.
- You don't need to go to the bank.

 

Unit 28. should

Unit 28. should

should + infinitive (should do / should write etc.):

I/ we/ you/ they
he/ she/ it

bracket to table

should
shouldn't

do
go
stop
write

 


(Someone) should do something = It is a good thing to do or the right thing to do:
- Tom should go to bed earlier. He usually goes to bed very late and he's always tired.
- It's a good film. You should go and see it.
- When you play tennis, you should always watch the ball.
 
shouldn't (or should not) = It's not a good thing to do or it's not the right thing to do:
- Tom shouldn't go to bed so late.
- You work all the time. You shouldn't work so hard.
 
We often use think with should:
 

I think Е should Е:
- I think Carol should buy some new clothes.
(=1 think it's a good idea)
- It's late. I think we should go home now.
- "Shall I buy this coat?" "Yes, I think you should."
I don't thinkЕ shouldЕ:
- I don't think you should work so hard.
(= I don't think it's a good idea)
- I don't think the police should carry guns.
Do you thinkЕ shouldЕ ?:
- Do you think I should buy this jacket?
- What time do you think we should go home?

Unit 28. should


must (see
Unit 27 must) is stronger than should:
- It's a good film. You should go and see it.
- It's a fantastic film. You must go and see it.
 
Another way of saying should is ought to Е:
- It's a good film. You ought to go and see it. (= You should go and see it.)

 

Unit 29. have to Е

Unit 29. have to Е

I have to do something = it is necessary for me to do it, I am obliged to do it:
 

I/ we/ you/ they
he/ she/ it

have
has

to do
to work
to go
to wear

 


- I'll be late for work tomorrow. I have to go to the dentist.
- Jill starts work at 7.00, so she has to get up at 6.00.
- You have to pass a test before you can get a driving licence.
 
The past (yesterday / last week etc.) is had to Е:
- I was late for work yesterday. I had to go to the dentist.
- There was no bus, so we had to walk home.
 
In questions and negatives we use do/does (present) and did (past):
present

do
does

I/ we/ you/ they
he/ she/ it

bracket to table

have to Е?

 

I/ we/ you/ they
he/ she/ it

don't
doesn't

bracket to table

have to Е

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


past

did

I/ we/ you/ they
he/ she/ it

bracket to table

have to Е?

 

I/ we/ you/ they
he/ she/ it

bracket to table

didn't have to Е

 

 

 

 

 

 


- What time do you have to get up tomorrow morning?
- Does Jill have to work on Saturdays?
- Why did they have to leave the party early?
 
I don't have to do (something) = it is not necessary to do it:
- I'm not working tomorrow, so I don't have to get up early.
- lan doesn't have to work very hard. He's got an easy job.
- We didn't have to wait very long. The bus soon came.
 
have to and must (see
Unit 27 must)
 
Use must when you say what you think is necessary, when you are giving your opinion. Usually, have to is also possible:
- It's a fantastic film. You must see it. (or You have to see it)
 
Use have to (not must) when you are not giving your personal opinion:
- Jill won't be here this afternoon. She has to go to the doctor. (This is not my opinion - it is a fact. )
- In many countries, men have to do military service. (This is not my opinion - it is the law in those countries.)

 

Unit 30. Would you like Е?

Would you like Е ? = Do you want Е ?
We use Would you like Е ? to offer things:
- "Would you like some coffee?" "Yes, please."
- "Would you like a cigarette?" "No, thank you. I don't smoke."
- "What would you like, tea or coffee?"
"Tea, please."

Unit 30. Would you like Е?


We use Would you like to Е ? to invite someone:
- Would you like to come to a party?
- "Would you like to have dinner with me on Sunday?" "Yes, I'd love to. (= I would love to have dinner with you.)"
- Where would you like to go this evening?
 
I'd like (I would like) is a polite way of saying "I want":
- (in a restaurant) I'd like fish, please.
- I'm thirsty. I'd like a drink.
- I'd like to see the film on television this evening.
 
Study the difference:

Would you like Е ? / I'd like Е
Unit 30. Would you like Е?
Would you like some tea? = Do you want some tea? (an offer)

Do you like Е ?/ I like Е
Unit 30. Would you like Е?
Do you like tea? = Do you think tea is nice?


- "Would you like to go to the cinema tonight?" (tonight)" "Yes, I'd love to go."
but "Do you like going to the cinema?" (in general) "Yes, I go to the cinema a lot."
- I'd like an orange. (= I want an orange now.)
but I like oranges. (in general)
 
See
Unit 47. to Е (I want to do) and -ing (I enjoy doing)

 

–аздел 7. —мысловые конструкции.

Unit 31. there is, †there are

Unit 31. there is  there are
There's a man on the roof.

Unit 31. there is  there are
There's a train at 10.30.

Unit 31. there is  there are
There are seven days in a week.


singular:

there is Е
there is not Е
is there Е ?

 

(there's)
(there isn't or there's not)
 

 

 

- There's a big tree in the garden.
- There's a good film on TV this evening.
   I'm going to watch it.
- Excuse me is there a hotel near here?
- "Have you got any money?"
   "Yes, there's some in my bag."
- We can't go skiing. There isn't any snow.


plural:

there are Е
there are not Е
are there Е ?

 

(there aren't)

 

 

- There are some big trees in the garden.
- Are there any letters for me today?
- This is a modern town. There aren't many old buildings here.
- How many players are there in a football team?
- There are 11 players in a football team.

Ј        there is and it is

Unit 31. there is  there are

Unit 31. there is  there are


Compare:
- A: What's that noise? B: It's a train. (it = that noise)
   There's a train at 10.30. It's a fast train. (it = the 10.30 train)
- There is a lot of salt in this soup.
   I don't like this soup. It's too salty. (it = this soup)

 

Unit 32. there was/ were/ has been/ will be

there

is/are
was/were
has been / have been
will be

see Unit 31
was/were see
Unit 11
has/have been see
Unit 15, Unit 16, Unit 17
will see
Unit 23

 

 


 

there was/were

Unit 32. there was/ were/ has been/ will be

The time is now 11 o'clock.
There was a train at 10.30

Compare:

there is/are (Present)

Ј                     There is a good film on TV this evening.

Ј                     We are staying at a very big hotel. There are 250 rooms.

Ј                     I'm hungry but there isn't anything to eat.

Ј                     Are there any letters for me this morning?

there was/were (Past)

Ј                     There was a good film on TV yesterday evening.

Ј                     We stayed at a very big hotel. There were 250 rooms.

Ј                     When I arrived home, I was hungry but there wasn't anything to eat.

Ј                     Were there any letters for me yesterday morning?


 

there has been / there have been

Unit 32. there was/ were/ has been/ will be

Ј                     Look! There's been an accident. (there's been - there has been)

Ј                     This road is very dangerous. There have been many accidents on it.
but There was an accident last night. (not has been Е last night see
Unit 19)

There's been an accident.


 

there will be

Ј                     Do you think there will be a lot of people at the party on Saturday?

Ј                     (from the weather forecast) Tomorrow the weather will be cold. There will be some rain in the afternoon.

Unit 32. there was/ were/ has been/ will be

 

 

Unit 33. it Е

Ј        it for time/day/distance/weather

Unit 33. it Е

What time is it?
It's half past ten. (10.30)
It's late.
It's time to go home.

Unit 33. it Е

What day is it?
It's 16 March.
It's Thursday today.
It's my birthday today.

Unit 33. it Е

How far is it from London to Bristol?
It's a long way from here to the airport.
We can walk home. It isn't far.*
It's 20 miles from our village to the nearest town.
* Use far in questions (is it far?) and negatives (it isn't far). Use a long way in positive sentences (it's a long way)

Unit 33. it Е

It's raining.   It isn't raining.   Is it snowing?
It rains/snows/rained/snowed.
It's warm/hot/cold/fine/cloudy/windy/sunny/foggy/dark etc.
It's a nice day today.

 

Compare it and there:

Ј                     It rains a lot in winter. (rains is a verb)
but There is a lot of rain in winter.
(rain is a noun)

Ј                     It was very windy. (windy is an adjective)
but There was a strong wind yesterday.
(wind is a noun)


there is and it is see
Unit 31

 

 

Ј        it's nice to Е etc

It's

easy/difficult/impossible/dangerous/safe/stupid/
cheap/expensive/nice/good/ wonderful/terrible etc

to Е

 

Ј        It's nice to see you again. (it = to see you again)

Ј        It's impossible to understand her. (it = to understand her)

Ј        It wasn't easy to find your house. (it = to find your house)

Ј        Don't forget it:

Ј        It's raining again. (not Is raining again)

Ј        Is it true that you are married? (not Is true that Е?)

 

Unit 34. go/ going work/ working/ play/ playing etc.

Ј        go/work/play etc. (infinitive)

We use the infinitive (go/work/play/be etc.) after:
 

will
shall
can
could
may
might
must
should
would

Tom will be here tomorrow.
Shall I open the window?
I can't play tennis.
Could you pass the salt, please?
May I smoke?
I might be late tonight.
It's late. I must go now.
You shouldn't work so hard.
Would you like some coffee?

see Unit 23 and Unit 24
see
Unit 23 and Unit 24
see
Unit 25
see
Unit 25
see
Unit 26
see
Unit 26
see
Unit 27
see
Unit 28
see
Unit 30


We use the infinitive with do/does/did:

do
does
did

Do you work?
How much does it cost?
What time did they leave?

I don't work.
She doesn't play tennis.
We didn't sleep very well.


do/does (Present Simple) see
Unit 6 and Unit 7
did (Past Simple) see
Unit 10

Ј        to go / to work / to play etc. (to + infinitive)

We use to Е (to go / to work / to play / to be etc.) after:
 

(I'm) going (to Е)
 
(I) have (to Е)
 
(I) want (to Е)
 
(I) would like (to Е)

I'm going to play tennis tomorrow.
What are you going to do?
I have to go now.
Everybody has to eat.
Do you want to go out?
They don't want to come with us.
I'd like to be rich.
Would you like to go out?

see Unit 22
 
see
Unit 29
 
see
Unit 47
 
see
Unit 30

Ј        going/working/playing etc.


We use -ing with am/is/are/was/were:

am/is/are
was/were

bracket to table

-ing

Present Continuous
Past Continuous

see Unit 3, Unit 4, Unit 21
see
Unit 12

 

 

 

Ј        Please be quiet. I'm working.

Ј        Tom isn't working today.

Ј        What time are you going out?

Ј        We didn't go out because it was raining.

Ј        What were you doing at 11 o'clock yesterday morning?

See Unit 47 to Е (I want to do) and -ing (I enjoy doing)

 

Unit 35. be/have/do in Present and Past tenses

Ј        be (am/is/are/was/were) -ing (cleaning/working/doing etc.

Present Continuous and Past Continuous

am/is/are -ing
Present Continuous
see
Unit 3,
see
Unit 4,
see
Unit 21

- Please be quiet. I'm working.
- It isn't raining at the moment.
- What are you doing this evening?

was/were -ing
Past Continuous
see
Unit 12

- I was working when she arrived.
- It wasn't raining, so we went out.
- What were you doing at 3 o'clock?

Ј        be (am/is/are/was/were) + Past Participle (cleaned/made/eaten etc.)

Passive

am/is/are + Past Participle
Present Passive
see
Unit 20

- The room is cleaned every day.
- I am never invited to parties.
- Oranges are imported into Britain.

was/were + Past Participle
Past Passive
see
Unit 20

- I was working when she arrived.
- It wasn't raining, so we went out.
- What were you doing at 3 o'clock?

Ј        have/has + Past Participle (cleaned/lost/eaten/been/gone etc.)

Present Perfect

have/has + Past Participle
Present Perfect
see
Unit 15,
see
Unit 16,
see
Unit 17

- I have cleaned my room.
- Tom has lost his passport.
- Barbara hasn't been to Canada.
- Where have they gone?

Ј        do/does/did + Infinitive (clean/like/eat/go etc.)

Present Simple and Past Simple - negatives and questions

do/does + Infinitive
Present Simple negatives and questions
see
Unit 6,
see
Unit 7

- I like coffee but I don't like tea.
- Tom doesn't smoke.
- What do you usually do at weekends?
- Does Barbara live alone?

did + Infinitive
Past Simple negatives and questions
see
Unit 10

- I didn't watch TV yesterday.
- It didn't rain last week.
- What time did Barbara go out?

 

 

Unit 36. Regular and irregular verbs

Ј        Past Simple and Past Participle

The Past Simple and Past Participle of regular verbs is -ed:
clean
cleaned   live lived   paint painted
 
Past Simple (see Unit 9):
I cleaned my shoes yesterday.
Charlie studied engineering at university.
 
We use the Past Participle for the Present Perfect and the Passive.
Present Perfect = have/has + Past Participle (see
Unit 15, see Unit 16, see Unit 17):
- I have cleaned my shoes.
- Joan has lived in London for ten years.
 
Passive = be (am/is/are/was/were) + Past Participle (see
Unit 20):
- These rooms are cleaned every day.
- My car was repaired last week.

Ј        Irregular verbs

The Past Simple and Past Participle of irregular verbs are not -ed:
 

 

make

break

cut

Past Simple

made

broke

cut

Past Participle

made

broken

cut


 
Sometimes the Past Simple and Past Participle are the same.
For example:
 

 

make

find

buy

cut

Past Simple

made

found

bought

cut

Past Participle

made

found

bought

cut


- I made a cake yesterday. (Past Simple)
- I have made some coffee. (Past Participle - Present Perfect)
- Butter is made from milk. (Past Participle - Present Passive)
 
Sometimes the past simple and past participle are different.
For example:
 

 

break

know

begin

go

Past Simple

broke

knew

began

went

Past Participle

broken

known

begun

gone


- Somebody broke this window last night. (Past Simple)
- Somebody has broken this window. (Past Participle - Present Perfect)
- This window was broken last night. (Past Participle - Past Passive)
 

 

Unit 37. I am /I don't etc.

Unit 37. I am /I don't etc.

She isn't tired but he is.
(he is = he is tired)

He smokes but she doesn't.
(she doesn't = she doesn't smoke)


 

am/is/are   was/were   have/has   do/does/did

can   will   must   may    might   would   should

Ј        We use these verbs with other verbs (am going / has seen / can't come etc.) but you can also use them alone:

- I haven't got a car but my sister has. (= my sister has got a car)
- СPlease help me.Т СI'm sorry, I can't.Т (= I can't help you)
- СAre you tired?Т СI was, but I'm not now.Т (= I was tired but I'm not tired now.)
- СDo you think Ann will come?Т СShe might.Т (= She might come.)
- СAre you going now?Т СYes, I'm afraid I must
(= I must go)

Ј        You can use these verbs in this way with Yes Е and No Е:

- СIs it raining?Т СYes, it is. / No, it isn't
- СHave you ever been to Canada?Т СYes, I have. / No, I haven't
- СWill Alan be here tomorrow?Т
СYes, he will. / No, he won't

Ј        Use do/does for the Present Simple:

- I don't like hot weather but Sue does. (= Sue likes hot weather)
- She works very hard but I don't. (= I don't work very hard)
- СDo you enjoy your work?Т СYes, I do
 
Use did for the Past Simple:
 
- СDid you and John enjoy the film?Т СI did but John didn't
(= I enjoyed it but John didn't enjoy it.)
- СDid it rain yesterday?Т СNo, it didn't

Ј        You cannot use the short forms 'm/'s/'re/'ve/'ll at the end of a sentence. Use the full forms am/is/are/have/will etc.:

-      СAre you tired?Т СYes, I am.Т (not СYes, I'm.Т)

 

Unit 38. Have you? / Are you? / Don't you? etc.

Unit 38. Have you? / Are you? / Don't you? etc.

Ј        In conversation, you can say have you? / is it? / can't he? etc. to show that you are interested or surprised. You can use these verbs in this way:

am/is/are   was/were   have/has   do/does/did   can   will.
 
- СYou're late.Т   СOh, am I? I'm sorry.Т
- СI was ill last week.Т   СWere you? I didn't know that.Т
- СIt's raining again.Т   СIs it? It was sunny five minutes ago.Т
 
- СBill can't drive.Т   СCan't he? I didn't know that.Т
- СI'm not hungry.Т   СAren't you? I am.Т
- СSue isn't at work today.Т   СIsn't she? Is she ill?Т
 
Use do/does for the Present Simple, did for the Past Simple:
- СI speak four languages.Т   СDo you? Which ones?Т
- СTom doesn't eat meat.Т   СDoesn't he? Does he eat fish?Т
- СLinda got married last week.Т   
СDid she? Really?Т

Ј        Question tags

You can use Е have you? /Е is it? / Е can't she? etc. at the end of a sentence. These СendingsТ are question tags (= mini-questions).
 
A positive sentence
a negative question tag
A negative sentence
a positive question tag

Unit 38. Have you? / Are you? / Don't you? etc.

 

positive negative

It's a beautiful day, isn't it?
She lives in London, doesn't she?
You closed the window, didn't you?
Those shoes are nice, aren't they?
Tom will be at home tomorrow, won't he?

 

Yes, it's lovely.
Yes, that's right.
Yes, I think so.
Yes, very nice.
Yes, I think so.

 

negative positive

That isn't your car, is it?
You don't smoke, do you?
You haven't met my mother, have you?
You won't be late, will you?

 

No, my car is white.
No, never.
No, I haven't.
No, don't worry.

 

Unit 39. too/either so am I/neither do I etc.

too and either

Unit 39. too/either so am I/neither do I etc.

Unit 39. too/either so am I/neither do I etc.

We use too and either at the end of a sentence.
 
We use too after a positive verb:
 
- СI'm happy.Т СI'm happy too
- СI enjoyed the film.Т СI enjoyed it too
- Mary is a doctor. Her husband is a doctor too.
 
We use either after a negative verb (am not / isn't / can't etc.):
 
- СI'm not happy.Т СI'm not happy either.Т (not СI'm not happy too.Т)
- СI can't cook.Т СI can't either
- Bill doesn't watch TV.
He doesn't read newspapers either.


 

So am I / Neither do I etc.

Unit 39. too/either so am I/neither do I etc.

Unit 39. too/either so am I/neither do I etc.

 

am/is/are Е

 

was/were Е

so

do/does Е

 

did Е

 

have/has Е

neither

can Е

 

will Е

 

must Е


So am I (= I am too), So have I (= I have too) etc.:
- СI'm tired.Т СSo am I.Т (not СSo I am.Т)
- СI was late for work today.Т СSo was John.Т
- СI work in a bank.Т СSo do I.Т
- СWe went to the cinema last night.Т СDid you? So did we.Т
 
Neither am I (= I'm not either), Neither have I (= I haven't either) etc.:
 
- СI haven't got a key.Т СNeither have I.Т (not СNeither I have.Т)
- СAnn can't cook.Т СNeither can Tom
- СI won't (= will not) be here tomorrow.Т СNeither will I.Т
- СI never eat meat.Т СNeither do I.Т
 
You can also use
Nor
Е (= Neither):
- СI'm not married.Т СNor am I.' (= Neither am I.)Т
 
See
Unit 37. I am / I donТt etc.

 

Unit 40. Negatives: isnТt/ havenТt/ donТt etc.
(отрицательные предложени€ с вспомогательными глаголами be, have, do)

Ј        We use not (n't) in negative sentences:

positive negative

am
is
are
was
were
have
has
will
would
can
could
should
must

am not ('m not)
is not (isn't
or 's not)
are not (aren't
or 're not)
was not (wasn't)
were not (weren't)
have not (haven't)
has not (hasn't)
will not (won't)
would not (wouldn't)
cannot (can't)
could not (couldn't)
should not (shouldn't)
must not (mustn't)

I'm not tired.
It isn't (or It's not) raining.
They aren't (or They're not) here.
Jack wasn't hungry.
The shops weren't open.
I haven't finished my work.
Sue hasn't got a car.
They won't be here tomorrow.
I wouldn't like to be an actor.
George can't drive.
I couldn't sleep last night.
You shouldn't work so hard.
I mustn't forget to phone Ann.

Ј        Present Simple negative (See Unit 6. I donТt Е (Present Simple negative)
(отрицательные формы глаголов в простом насто€щем времени)):

I/we/you/they do not (don't)
he/she/it does not (doesn't)

bracket to table

+ infinitive (work/live/go etc.)

 

 


Past Simple negative (See
Unit 10. I didnТt Е Did you Е? (Past Simple negative and questions)
(
отрицательные и вопросительные предложени€ в простом прошедшем времени)):
 
I/they/he/she etc. did not (didn't) + infinitive
 

positive
I smoke.
They work hard.
Tom plays the guitar.
She likes her job.
 
I got up early.
We worked hard.
They saw the film.
She had a bath.

negative
I don't smoke.
They don't work hard.
Tom b the guitar.
She doesn't like her job.
 
I didn't get up early.
We didn't work hard.
They didn't see the film.
She didn't have a bath.

 

 

Ј        The negative of СLook!Т, СGo away!Т etc. is СDon'tЕ !Т:

Look!
Go away!

Don't look!
Don't go
away!

 

 

Ј        Do can also be the main verb (don't do / didn't do etc.):

positive
Do it.
He does a lot of work.
I did the examination.

negative
Don't do it.
He doesn't do much work.
I didn't do the examination.

 

 

–аздел 8. ќбразование вопросительных предложений

 

Unit 41. Questions (1) Is it Е? Have you Е? Do they Е? etc.
(вопросительные предложени€ со вспомогательными глаголами be, have, do)

positive

 

you

X

are

 

You are eating.

 

 

question

 

are

you

 

Are you eating?

 

What are you eating?

Ј        In questions, the first verb (is/are/have etc.) is before the subject:

positive

 

question

 

 

subject + verb

 

 

verb +

subject

I am late.

  

 

Am

I late?

That seat is free.

 

Is

that seat free?

She was angry.

Why

was

she angry?

David has gone.

Where

has

David gone?

You have got a car.

 

Have

you got a car?

They will be here.

When

will

they be here?

Tom can swim.

 

Can

Tom swim?

Ј        Be careful with word order: the subject is after the first verb:

- Where has David gone? (not СWhere has gone David?Т)
- Why are those people waiting?
(not СWhy are waiting those people?Т)

Ј        Present Simple questions: (See Unit 7. Do you Е? (Present Simple questions)
(вопросительные предложени€ в простом насто€щем времени)

do (I/we/you/they)
does (he/she/it)

bracket to table

+ infinitive (work/live/go etc.)

 

 


Past Simple questions: (See
Unit 10. I didnТt Е Did you Е? (Past Simple negative and questions)
(отрицательные и вопросительные предложени€ в простом прошедшем времени)):
 
did (you/they/she etc.) + infinitive
 

positive

 

question

 

 

subject + verb

 

 

verb +

subject

You smoke.

  

 

Do you

smoke?

They live in London.

Where

do they

live?

Jack smokes.

 

Does Jack

smoke?

She gets up early.

What time

does she

get up?

They worked hard.

 

Did they

work hard?

You had dinner.

What

did you

have for dinner?

She got up early.

What time

did she

get up?


Do can also be the main verb (do you do / did she do etc.):
 
- What do you usually do at weekends?
- СWhat does your sister do?Т СShe works in a bank.Т
- СI broke my leg.Т СHow did you do that?Т
(not СHow did you that?Т)

Ј        Negative questions with Why Е ? (Why isn't Е? / Why don't Е ? etc.): Be careful with word order in these questions:

- Where's John? Why isn't he here? (not СWhy he isn't here?Т)
- Why can't Paula come to the meeting? (not СWhy Paula can't ЕТ)
- Why didn't you phone me last night?
 
See
Unit 42 Questions (2) Who saw you Е? Who did you see? and Unit 43 Who is she talking to? What is it like?

 

Unit 42. Questions (2) Who saw you Е? Who did you see?
(вопросительные предложени€ (2)

Unit 42. Questions (2): Who saw you Е? Who did you see?

Fred saw Julia.
 
Who saw Julia? Fred.
 
Who did Fred see?
Julia.


 

Unit 42. Questions (2): Who saw you Е? Who did you see?

Ј        In these questions who or what is the subject:

- Who lives in that house? (= Somebody lives there- who?) (not СWho does live Е?Т)
- What happened? (= Something happened-what?) (not СWhat did happen?Т)
- What's (= What is) burning?
- Who's got (= Who has got) my key?

Ј        In these questions who or what is the object:

- Who did you meet yesterday? (= You met somebody - who?)
- What did she say? (= She said something - what?)
- Who are you phoning?
- What was he wearing?
 
Compare:

- George likes eggs.

  

Who likes eggs? George.
What does George like?
Eggs.

- Jill won some money.

Who won some money? Jill.
What did Jill win? Some money.

Ј        Use who for people (somebody), what for things, ideas etc. (something):

-      Who is your favourite singer?
- What is your favourite song?

 

Unit 43. Questions (3) Who is she talking to? What is it like?
(вопросительные предложени€ (3)

Unit 43. Questions (3): Who is she talking to? What is it like?

Julia is talking to someone.
 
Who?
 
Who is Julia talking to?

Ј        Questions (Who Е ? / WhatЕ ? / Where Е ? / Which Е ?) often end with a preposition (to/for/about/with etc.):

- СI'm thinking.Т СWhat are you thinking about
- СI'm afraid.Т СWhy? What are you afraid of
- СWhere is your friend from?Т СShe's from Germany.Т
- СWho does this book belong to?Т СIt's mine.Т
- СWho did she go on holiday with?Т СWith her parents.Т
- СWhat does he look like?Т СHe's got a beard and wears glasses.Т
- СThis book is very good.Т СIs it? What is it about
- СTom's father is in hospital.Т СWhich hospital is he in

Ј        What (is/are/was/were) Е like?

Unit 43. Questions (3): Who is she talking to? What is it like?

СWhat is it like?Т = Tell me something about it; is it good or bad, big or small, old or new? etc.

When we say СWhat Е like?Т, like is a preposition. It is not the verb like (Do you like music? etc.).


- A: I went to the new restaurant last night.
  B: Oh, did you? What's it like? Good?
  A: Yes, excellent.
- A: What's your new teacher like?
  B: She's very good. We learn a lot.
- A: I met Linda's parents yesterday.
  B: Oh, what are they like?
  A: They're very friendly.
- A: What was the weather like when you were on holiday?
  
B: Very nice.

 

Unit 44. What Е ? Which Е ? How Е ?

Ј        What Е ?

What + noun (What colour Е ? / What kind Е ? etc.):
- What colour is your car? What colour are your eyes?
- What size is this shirt? What kind of job do you want?
- What make is your TV set? What time is it?
What without a noun:
- What's your favourite colour?
- What do you want to do this evening?
What and Who
Unit 42. Questions (2) Who saw you Е? Who did you see?
(
вопросительные предложени€ (2))

Ј        Which Е ?

Which + noun (things or people):
- Which train did you catch - the 9.50 or the 10.30?
- Which doctor did you see - Doctor Ellis, Doctor Gray or Doctor Hill?
Which without a noun (not people):
- Which is bigger - Canada or Australia?
but Who is taller - Bill or Jerry? (Who for people)
Which one(s)
Unit 69. one/ ones

Ј        What Е ? and Which Е ?


We say Which when we are thinking about a small number (perhaps two, three or four things):

- We can go this way or that way.
Which way shall we go?
- There are four umbrellas here.
Which is yours?

Unit 44. What Е ? Which Е ? How Е ?


Use What in other situations:
- What is the capital of Italy?
- What sort of music do you like? (not СWhich sort Е ?Т)
Compare:
- What colour are your eyes? (not СWhich colour Е ?Т)
but Which colour do you prefer, pink or yellow?

Ј        How Е ?


- СHow was the party last night?Т СIt was great!Т
- СHow do you usually go to work?Т СBy bus.Т
How + adjective/adverb (how old / how big / how fast etc.):
- How old is your father? How tall are you? How big is the house?
- How far is it to the shops from here?
- How often do you go on holiday?

 

Unit 45. How long does it take?

Unit 45. How long does it take?

Unit 45. How long does it take?

How long does it take by plane from London to Madrid?
It takes two hours.

I started reading the book two weeks ago. I finished it today.
It took me two weeks to read it.


 

 How long does it take 

 by plane 
 by train 
 by car 

 from Е to Е ? 

 

 It takes 

 two hours 
 ten minutes 
 a long time 

 by plane 
 by train 
 by car 

 from Е to Е ? 


- How long does it take by train from London to Manchester?
It takes two hours by train from London to Manchester.
- How long does it take by car from your house to the station?
It takes ten minutes by car from my house to the station.
 

 How long 

 did 
 does 
 will 

 it take 

 (you) 
 (Ann) 
 (them) 

 to (do something)? 

 

 It 

 took 
 takes 
 will take 

 (me) 
 (Ann) 
 (them) 

 a week 
 a long time 
 three hours 

 to (do something). 


- How long does it take to cross the Atlantic Ocean by ship?
- How long will it take me to learn to drive?
- СI came by train.Т СDid you? How long did it take
- Did it take you a long time to find a job?
- It takes a long time to learn a language.
- It takes me 20 minutes to get to work in the morning.
- It took Tom an hour to do his shopping.
- It will take me an hour to cook the dinner.
- It doesn't take long to cook an omelette.

 

Unit 46. Can you tell me where Е? Do you know what Е? etc.

Unit 46. Can you tell me whereЕ? Do you know whatЕ ? etc.

 

We say: Where is the station?
but
Can you tell me where the station is?
(not СCan you tell me where is the station?Т)
also:

 

I know
I don't know
Do you know
I can't remember
I wonder
(etc.)

bracket to table

where the station is (?)

Who are those people?
Where have they gone?
How old is Tom?
What time is the bus?
When is Ann going away?
How much is this camera?
Why were they late?
What was he wearing?

but

Do you know
I don't know
I know
Can you tell me
I can't remember

who those people are
where they've gone
how old Tom is
what time the bus is
when Ann is going away
how much this camera is
why they were late
what he was wearing

?

Ј        Questions with do/does/did (Present Simple and Past Simple):

Where does he live?

 

Do you know where he lives?

(not СDo you know where does he live?Т)

 

How do aeroplanes fly?
What does she want?
Why did she go home?
Where did I put the key?

but

Do you know
I don't know
I know
Can you tell me
I can't remember

how aeroplanes fly
what she wants
why she went home
where I put the key?

?

Ј        Questions beginning Is Е? / Do Е ? / Can Е ? etc. (yes/no questions):

Is Jack at home?
Have they got a car?
Can he help us?
Does Ann smoke?
Did anybody see you?

but

Do you know
I don't know

if
or
whether

Jack is at home
they've got a car
he can help us
Ann smokes
anybody saw me

?


You can use if or whether in these sentences:
- Do you know if she smokes? or Do you know whether she smokes?

 

–аздел 9. —мысловые конструкции 2.

Unit 47. to Е (I want to do) and -ing (I enjoy doing)

Ј        verbs + to Е (I want to do)

want
need
plan

decide
offer
refuse

hope
expect
promise

try
forget
learn

+

to Е (to do / to work / to be etc.)


- What do you want to do this evening?
- I hope to go to university next year.
- We have decided to leave tomorrow morning.
- You forgot to switch off the light when you went out.
- My brother is learning to drive.
- I tried to work but I was too tired.

Ј        verbs + -ing (I like doing)

like
enjoy

love
hate

suggest
mind

stop
finish

+

-ing (doing/working/being etc.)

 

- I enjoy dancing. (not Сenjoy to danceТ)
- Do you like driving?
- I hate getting up in the morning.
- Ann loves going to the cinema.
- Has it stopped raining?
- Mary suggested going to the cinema.
- I don't mind being alone.

Unit 47. toЕ (I want to do) and -ing (I enjoy doing)

 

but

would like
would love

would hate
would prefer

+

to Е (to do / to work / to be etc.)


- Jan would like to meet you. (not Сwould like meetingТ)
- I'd love to go to Australia. (I'd = I would)
- СWould you like to sit down?Т СNo, I'd prefer to stand, thank you.Т
- I wouldn't like to be a teacher.
 
See
Unit 30. Would you like Е?

Ј        verbs + to Е or -ing:

start
begin

continue
prefer

+

to Е (to do etc.)
or -ing (doing etc.)


- It started raining. or It started to rain.
- I prefer travelling by car. or I prefer to travel by car.
(but would prefer to do something)

 

Unit 48. I want you to Е/ I told you to Е

Unit 48. I want you toЕ / I told you toЕ

The woman wants to go.

The man doesn't want the woman to go.
He wants her to stay.

(I) want to Е

(I) want (somebody) to Е

Ј        We say I want (you) to Е:


- I want you to be happy. (not СI want that you are happy.Т)
- They didn't want anybody to know their secret.
 

We also use this structure (verb + somebody + to Е) with:

tell
ask
advise
persuade
expect
teach

 

I
She
What do you
We
I didn't
I

told
asked
advise
persuaded
expect
taught

you
her friend
me
George
you
my brother

to be
to help
to do?
to come
to be
to swim.

careful.
her.
 
with us.
here.
 

Ј        I told (somebody) to Е /I told (somebody) not to Е:

Unit 48. I want you toЕ / I told you toЕ

- Tom said (to Ann): СWait for me!Т -> Tom told Ann to wait for him.
Tom said (to Ann): СDon't wait for me.Т -> Tom told Ann not to wait for him.

Ј        make and let

After make and let we do not use to:
- He's very funny. He makes us laugh. (not Сmakes us to laughТ)
- I don't want you to go alone. Let me go with you. (not СLet me to goТ)
 
Let's (do something)
You can say Let's Е (= let us) when you want people to do things with you:
- Come on! Let's dance!
- СShall we go out tonight?Т СNo, I'm tired.
Let's stay at home.Т

Ј        help

You can say help somebody do or help somebody to do:
- Tom helped me carry the box. or Tom helped me to carry the box.

 

Unit 49. He said that Е/ He told me that Е

Unit 49. He said thatЕ / He told me thatЕ

Ј        After said that / told (somebody) thatЕ a verb is usually past:

am/is -> was

(she said) СI'm working.Т -> She said that she was working.
 
(they said to us) СThe hotel isn't very good.Т -> They told us that the hotel wasn't very good.

are -> were

(I said) СThe shops are open.Т -> I said that the shops were open.

have/has -> had

(I said to him) СI've finished my work.Т -> I told him that I had finished my work.

can -> could

(Tom said) СI can't come to the party.Т -> Tom said that he couldn't come to the party.

will -> would

(my friends said to me) СThe exam will be easy.Т -> My friends told me that the exam would be easy.

do/does -> did

(I said) СIt doesn't matter.Т -> I said that it didn't matter.
 
(he said) СI don't know your address.Т -> He said that he didn't know my address.

like -> liked
 
go -> went
(etc.)

(Mary said) СI like tomatoes.Т -> Mary said that she liked tomatoes.
 
(they said) СWe often go to the cinema.Т -> They said that they often went to the cinema.

Ј        say (-> said) and tell (-> told)

say something (to somebody): They said thatЕ (not СThey said me that ЕТ)
tell somebody something: They told me thatЕ / They told Ann thatЕ
 
- He said that he was tired. (not СHe said me that he was tired.Т)
but He told me that he was tired. (not СHe told that he was tired.Т)
- What did he say to you? (not Сsay youТ)
but What did he tell you? (not Сtell to youТ)

Ј        СthatТ is not necessary in these sentences. You can say:

-      He said that he was tired. or He said he was tired. (without СthatТ)

Unit 50. I went to the shop to buy Е

Ann didn't have any bread.
But she wanted some bread.
So she went to the shop.
 
Why did she go to the shop?
To buy some bread.
 
She went to the shop to buy some bread.

Unit 50. I went to the shop to buy Е

Ј        to Е (to do / to buy / to see etc.) tells us why a person does something (the purpose):

- СWhy are you going out?Т СTo buy a newspaper.Т
- George went to the station to meet his friend.
- She turned on the TV to watch the news.
- I'd like to go to Spain to learn Spanish.
 

money /time to (do something):

- We need some money to buy food.
- I haven't got time to watch television.

Ј        to Е and for Е:

to + verb: to buy / to have / to see etc.
for + noun: for some bread / for dinner / for a holiday etc.
- She went to the shop to buy some bread. (to + verb)
but She went to the shop for some bread. (for + noun)
- They are going to Scotland to see their grandmother. (not Сfor to seeТ)
but They are going to Scotland for a holiday.
- We need some money to buy food. (not Сfor buyТ)
but We need some money for food.

Ј        wait

wait for somebody/something:
- Are you waiting for the bus?
- Please wait for me.
 
wait for somebody/something to Е:
- I can't go out yet. I'm waiting for John to phone.
- I was having dinner when they arrived. They waited for me to finish my meal.
 
See
Unit 85. enough
See Unit 86. too

 

 

Unit 51. get

Ј        get something/somebody = receive/buy/fetch/find

Unit 51. get
- Did you get my letter last week? (= receive)
- I like your pullover. Where did you get it? (= buy)
- (on the phone) СHello, can I speak to Ann, please?Т СOne moment. I'll get her.Т (= fetch)
- Is it difficult to get a job in your country?
(= find)

Ј        get cold/hungry/tired/better etc. (get + adjective) = become

Unit 51. get
- Drink your coffee. It's getting cold.
- If you don't eat, you get hungry.
- I'm sorry he's ill. I hope he gets better soon.
 
also: get married and get lost:
- Linda and Frank are getting married next month.
- I went for a walk and got lost. (= I lost my way)

Ј        get to a place (get to work / get to London / get home etc.) = arrive

- I usually get to work before 8.30. (= arrive at work)
- We went to Oxford yesterday. We left London at 8.00 and got to Oxford at 9.00.
- Can you tell me how to get to the city centre?
 
but get home (not Сget to homeТ):
- What time did you get home last night?

Unit 51. get

Ј        get in/out/on/off

get in (a car)
get out (of a car)

get on/get off (a bus, a train, a plane)

Unit 51. get

Unit 51. get


- She got in the car and drove away. (you can also say Сgot into the carТ)
- A car stopped and a man got out. (but Сgot out of the carТ)
- They got on the bus outside the hotel and got off in Cross Street.

 

Unit 52. go

Ј        go to Е (go to London / go to work / go to a concert etc.)

- I'm going to France next week.
- What time do you usually go to work?
- Tom didn't want to go to the concert.
- I went to the dentist on Friday.
- What time did you go to bed last night?

Unit 52. go


 
also: go to sleep (= start to sleep):
- I went to bed and went to sleep very quickly.
 
go home (without to):
- I'm going home now. (not Сgoing to homeТ)

Ј        go on holiday / a trip / an excursion / a cruise

- We go on holiday (to Scotland) every year.
- When we were on holiday, we went on a lot of excursions to different places.
- Schoolchildren often go away on school trips.

Ј        go for a walk / a run / a swim / a drink / a meal / a holiday

- The sea looks nice. Let's go for a swim.
- Last night we went out for a meal. The restaurant was very good.
- СWhere's Ann?Т СShe's gone for a walk in the park.Т
- They've gone to Scotland for a holiday.
(We say Сon holidayТ but Сfor a holidayТ)

Ј        go swimming / go shopping etc.

We use go -ing for sporting activities (go swimming / go skiing / go jogging / go fishing etc.) and also shopping (go shopping):

I go
he is going
we went
they have gone
she wants to go
 

shopping
swimming
fishing
sailing
skiing
etc.

Unit 52. go

-      We live near the mountains. In winter we go skiing every weekend.
- She has a small boat and she often goes sailing.
- Are you going shopping this afternoon?
- It's a nice day. Let's go swimming. (or Let's go for a swim.)
- George went fishing last Sunday.
He caught a lot offish.

 

–аздел 10. ћестоимени€

Unit 53. I/me, he/him, they/them etc.

Ј        people

 

I/me

we/us

you/you

he/him

she/her

they/them

subject

I

we

you

he

she

they

object

me

us

you

him

her

them

 

subject
I
we
you
he
she
they

 
I like Ann.
We like Ann.
You like Ann.
He likes Ann.
She likes Ann.
They like Ann.

 
Ann likes me.
Ann likes us.
Ann likes you.
Ann likes him.
Ann likes her.
Ann likes them.

object
me
us
you
him
her
them


 

Use me/him/her etc. (object) after prepositions (for/to/at/with etc.):

- This letter isn't for you. It's for me.
- Where's Alan? I want to talk to him.
- Who is that woman? Why are you looking at her?
- We're going to the cinema. Do you want to come with us?
- They are going to the cinema. Do you want to go with them?

Ј        things

 

It's nice. I like it.

They're nice. I like them.

subject
object

it
it

they
them

-      I want that book. Please give it to me.
- I want those books. Please give them to me.
- Diane never drinks milk. She doesn't like it.
- I never go to parties. I don't like them.
- СWhere's the newspaper?Т СYou're sitting on it

 

Unit 54. my/his/their etc.

my/his/their etc.

I -> my
we -> our
you -> your
he -> his
she -> her
they -> their
 

it -> its

I like my job.
We like our jobs.
You like your job.
He likes his job.
She likes her job.
They like their jobs.
 
 
Oxford (= it) is famous for its university.


 

We use my/your/his/her etc. + a noun:

my hands
our house

his mother
your
best friend

her new car
their room

Ј        his/her/their:

his/her/their

Ј        its and it's:

its
it's (= it is)

Oxford is famous for its university.
I like Oxford. It's a nice city.
(= It is nice.)

 

Unit 55. Whose is this? ItТs mine.

Whose is this? ItТs mine.


 

I -> my -> mine
we -> our -> ours
you -> your -> yours
he -> his -> his
she -> her -> hers
they -> their -> theirs

 

It's my money.
It's our money.
It's your money.
It's his money.
It's her money.
It's their money.

 

It's mine.
It's ours.
It's yours.
It's his.
It's hers.
It's theirs.

Ј        my/our/your/her/their + a noun (my hands/your book etc.):

- My hands are cold.
- Is this your book?
- Ann gave me her umbrella.
- It's their problem, not our problem.

Ј        mine/ours/yours/hers/theirs without a noun:

- These books are mine but this newspaper is yours. (= your newspaper)
- I didn't have an umbrella, so Ann gave me hers. (= her umbrella)
- It's their problem, not ours. (= our problem)
- СIs that their car?Т
СNo, theirs is green.Т (= their car)

Ј        his with or without a noun:

- Is this his camera?
- It's a nice camera.
Is it his?

Ј        We say: a friend of mine/a friend of his/some friends of yours etc.:

- I went out to meet a friend of mine. (not Сa friend of meТ)
- Are those people friends of yours?
(not Сfriends of youТ)

Ј        Whose Е?

- Whose book is this? (= Is it your book? his book? my book? etc.)
 

You can use whose with or without a noun:

Whose money is this?
Whose is this?

bracket to table

It's mine.

 

Whose Е?

Whose shoes are these?
Whose are these?

bracket to table

They're John's.

Unit 56. I/me/my/mine

Unit 56. I/me/my/mine

Unit 56. I/me/my/mine

 

 

I etc.

me etc.

my etc.

mine etc.

Unit 56. I

I know Tom.

Tom knows me.

It's my car.

It's mine.

Unit 56. We

We know Tom.

Tom knows us.

It's our car.

It's ours.

Unit 56. You

You know Tom.

Tom knows you.

It's your car.

It's yours.

Unit 56. He

He know Tom.

Tom knows him.

It's his car.

It's his.

Unit 56. She

She know Tom.

Tom knows her.

It's her car.

It's hers.

Unit 56. They

They know Tom.

Tom knows them.

It's their car.

It's theirs.

 

See Unit 53.

See Unit 53.

See Unit 54.

See Unit 55.


- СDo you know that man?Т СYes, I know him but I can't remember his name
- She was very happy because we invited her to stay with us at our house.
- СWhere are the children? Have you seen them?Т СYes, they are playing with their friends in the garden.Т
- That pen is mine. Can you give it to me, please?
- СIs this your umbrella?Т СNo, it's yours
- He didn't have an umbrella, so she gave him hers. (= she gave her umbrella to him)
- I gave him my address and he gave me his. (= he gave his address to me)

 

Unit 57. myself/yourself/himself etc.

Unit 57. myself/yourself/himself etc.

 

I

->

me

->

 

myself

 

I

looked at

myself.

 

he

him

 

himself

He

himself.

 

she

her

 

herself

She

herself.

 

you

you

yourself.

You

yourself.

(one person)

yourselves.

You

yourselves.

(two or more people)

we

us

 

ourselves

We

ourselves

 

they

them

 

themselves

They

themselves

 


- I cut myself with a knife. (not СI cut meТ)
- She fell off her bicycle but she didn't hurt herself.
- Do you sometimes talk to yourself when you are alone?
- If you want some more food, help yourselves.
- Did they pay for themselves or did you pay for them?
- СDid you all have a nice time?Т СYes, we enjoyed ourselves

Ј        by myself/by yourself etc. = alone


- I went on holiday by myself. (= I went on holiday alone.)
- She wasn't with her friends.
She was by herself.

Ј        -selves and each other

- I looked at myself and Tom looked at himself.
= We looked at ourselves (in the mirror).
but
I looked at Tom and he looked at me.
= We looked at each other.

Unit 57. myself/yourself/himself etc.

- Jill and Ann are good friends. They know each other very well.
(= Jill knows Ann and Ann knows Jill.)
- Paul and I live near each other.
(== Paul lives near me and I live near him.)

Unit 57. myself/yourself/himself etc.

 

Unit 58. -Тs (AnnТs camera/my brotherТs car etc.

Unit 58. -Тs (AnnТs camera/my brotherТs car etc.

Unit 58. -Тs (AnnТs camera/my brotherТs car etc.

Unit 58. -Тs (AnnТs camera/my brotherТs car etc.

Ann's camera
(her camera)

my brother's car
(his car)

the manager's office
(his or her office)

Ј        We normally use -'s (not of Е) for people:


- I stayed at my sister's house. (not Сthe house of my sisterТ)
- Have you met Mr Kelly's wife? (not Сthe wife of Mr KellyТ)
- Are you going to James's party?
- Ann is a girl's name.
 

You can use -'s without a noun:


- Mary's hair is longer than Ann's. (= Ann's hair)
- СWhose umbrella is this?Т СIt's my mother's.Т (= my mother's umbrella)
- СWhere were you last night?Т
СAt John's.Т (= John's house)

Ј        friend's and friends'

Unit 58. -Тs (AnnТs camera/my brotherТs car etc.

Unit 58. -Тs (AnnТs camera/my brotherТs car etc.

my friend's house = one friend
(= his house or her house)

my friends' house = two or more friends
(= their house)

We write -'s after friend/student/mother etc. (singular):
my mother's car (one mother)
my father's car (one father)

We write -' after friends/students/parents etc. (plural):
my parents' car (two parents)

Ј        We use of Е (not usually -'s) for things, places etc.:


the roof of the building (not Сthe building's roofТ)
the beginning of the film (not Сthe film's beginningТ)
the time of the next train
the capital of Spain
the meaning of this word
the name of this town
the cause of the problem
the back of the car

 

–аздел 11. ”потребление артиклей и предлогов с именами существительными

Unit 59. a/an
(неопределенный артикль)

Unit 59. a/an

Ј        a = УoneФ. Don't forget a:


- Do you want a cup of tea? (not УDo you want cup of tea?Ф)
- Alice works in a bank. (not Уin bankФ)
- I want to ask a question. (not Уask questionФ)
- When I was a child, I liked reading stories.
- Birmingham is a large city in central England.

Ј        an (not a) before a/e/i/o/u:


- They live in an old house. (not Уa old house.Ф)
- A mouse is an animal. It's a small animal.
- Can you give me an example, please?
- This is an interesting book.
- I bought a hat and an umbrella.

also

an hour (h is not pronounced: an (h)our)

but

a university a European country

 

(these words are pronounced УyuniversityФ, УyuropeanФ)

Ј        We use a/an for jobs etc.:


- УWhat's your job?Ф
УI'm a dentist.Ф (not УI'm dentist.Ф)
- УWhat does she do?Ф УShe's an engineer
- Would you like to be a teacher?
- Beethoven was a composer.
- Picasso was a famous painter.
- Are you a student?

Unit 59. a/an

Ј        another (an + other) is one word (not Уan otherФ):


- Can I have another cup of coffee?
- Open another window. It's very hot.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

„ј—“№ 2. ѕрактикум по закреплению навыков.

 

–аздел 1. †–абота с текстами.

Unit 1.

1) Read the text.

ACCESS METHODS

An access method is a technique for accessing data that has been placed on some kind of mass storage device: magnetic tape at one time, but now most often a hard disk. While the term access method is most properly used to describe the method used to retrieve the data, it is also frequently used as a synonym for the program or routine that implements the method. All† manufacturers provide† computers† with the service routines to implement access methods, as a general† component of an operating system. Instead of access method, terms such as data management, file control program, and I/O (input or output) supervisor are sometimes used, depending on the manufacturer. The terminology used in this article is common to several manufacturers, including IBM, but not all manufacturers support every variant described. Е

 

2) Study the word combinations:

accessing data - доступ к данным

mass storage device - запоминающее устройство большой емкости

magnetic tape - магнитна€ лента

service routines Ц обслуживающие программы

data management - управление данными

 

3) Translate the text and answer the questions.

1) What is the access method?

2) Which term is used instead of access method?

3) How do all computer manufactures provide service routines?

4) What manufactures are the terminology Уaccess methodФ common to?

4) Find English† equivalents in the text.

1) ¬се производители† оснащают компьютеры обслуживающими †программами дл€ внедрени€ методов† доступа, в основном, в качестве† компонентов† операционной системы.†

2) ћетод доступа - это† технологи€ доступа к данным, которые наход€тс€ на некотором запоминающем устройстве большой емкости.

3) »ногда вместо пон€ти€ Уметод доступаФ используютс€ такие термины, как: управление данными, программа управлени€ файлами, диспетчер ¬/¬ (ввод / вывод), в зависимости от производител€.

5) Fill in the blanks with suitable words and word combinations from the text.

1) An access method is a technique for accessing data that has been _____ some kind of mass storage device.

2) †_____ access method, terms such as data management supervisor are sometimes used, _____ the manufacturer.

3) The terminology used in this article is _____ several manufacturers.

4) The term access method is most _____describe the method used to retrieve the data.

6) Make sentences using these expressions:

At one time, placed on, used as, instead of, common to, depending on, component of.

 

 

Unit 2.

1) Read the text.

VIRTUAL MEMORY

Many programs are too long to fit into the space in main memory that can be allocated to them at run time. In a uniprogramming system, this will be true when the amount of space required by the program is greater than the total memory available to problem programs. In a multiprogramming system it may be true because the amount of space that is needed is more than the operating system is willing to allocate to this particular program. In either case, it becomes necessary to break the program up into sections, segments, or overlays so that the entire program need not be in main memory at the same time. The term folding has sometimes been used for this process.

In many old systems, the programmer had the responsibility for breaking the program into overlays and for providing the loading instructions that bring necessary overlays into main memory as they are needed. Many software systems provided aids to overlay planning. The user could name the overlays so that all symbolic addresses in an overlay would automatically be tagged with a special identifier that indicated which overlay they belonged to. A loader or linker сreated an object program organized as a set of overlays and a root segment containing information about the overlay structure. The root segment would be loaded into main memory along with the segments needed to get the program started. Any reference to a symbolic address in a segment not in main memory would cause a call on the supervisor to load the required segment, overlaying other segments if necessary. Е

 

2) Study the word combinations:

entire program - цела€ программа

particular program - конкретна€ программа

software systems - система программного обеспечени€

special identifier Ц специальный идентификатор

root segment - корневой сегмент

run time - врем€ выполнени€ ( программы )

folding† - свертывание

identifier - идентификатор

supervisor Ц супервизор (устаревшее название операционной системы)

 

3) Translate the text and answer the questions.

1) What is virtual memory?

2) Where are many programs allocated to?

3) WhatТs a multiprogramming system?

4) What responsibility did the programmer have for in many old systems?

5) What systems did provide aids to overlay planning?

6) Where would the root segment be loaded?

7) How could the user name the overlays?

 

4) Translate the sentences from the text.

1) ¬ мультипрограммной системе это возможно, потому что† количество места, которое необходимо, больше, чем операционна€ система может выделить данной программе.

2) ¬о многих старых системах программист отвечал за разбиение программы на сегменты и за обеспечение инструкций, которые загружают† необходимые сегменты в основную пам€ть по мере надобности.

3)  орневой сегмент должен быть загружен в основную пам€ть одновременно с сегментами, необходимыми† дл€ запуска программы.

4) ¬ этом случае† необходимо разбить программу на секции, сегменты, или оверлеи, так как не следует загружать программу полностью в основную пам€ть.

5) ћногие программы† слишком большие, чтобы уместитьс€ в пространство основной пам€ти, котора€ может быть распределена на них во врем€ выполнени€.

††††††††††† 5) Complete the sentences using prepositions from the text.

1) It becomes necessary to break the program up _____ sections, segments, or overlays so that the entire program need not be in main memory at the same time.

2) In many old systems, the programmer had the responsibility _____ breaking the program into overlays.

3) The user could name the overlays so that all symbolic addresses _____ an overlay would automatically be tagged _____ a special identifier.

4) A loader or linker created an object program organized as a set ____overlays and a root segment containing information ______ the overlay structure.

5) Many programs are too long to fit _____ the space in main memory that can be allocated to them ____run time.

6) The root segment would be loaded _____ main memory along _____ the segments needed to get the program started.

7) Any reference to a symbolic address in a segment not in main memory would cause a call ____ the supervisor to load ____ the required segment.

6) Make sentences using these expressions:

Amount of, in either case, to fit into, used for, responsibility for, be tagged with, belonged to, a set of, to load into, along with, reference to, call on, information about.

7) Make a summary of this text.

 

 

Unit †3.

1) Read the text.

ADMINISTRATIVE APPLICATIONS (Introduction)

In the early years of electronic computing, applications were classified simply as either "scientific" or "business." The essence of the distinction was that scientific applications involved substantial arithmetic operations on rather small volumes of data, whereas business applications involved modest arithmetic operations on substantial amounts of data. Internal computer speed (CPU instruction cycle time and memory access time) was the crucial variable in scientific computing applications, while input and output speed and versatility (punched card input-output (I/O), printed output, magnetic tape I/O, disk I/O, etc.) were the crucial variables in business data processing. The two types of applications were called "CPU-intensive" (sometimes "CPU-bound") or "input-output-intensive" ("I/O-bound"). Matrix inversion was "typical" of scientific applications, and insurance company premium transactions processing was "typical" of business applications. With the passage of time and with the pervasive evolution of computer applications, the original two-category distinction no longer sufficed.

First, government transactions processing grew no less rapidly than did business transactions processing, as government agencies, like the US Social Security Administration, established pioneering large-scale government administrative applications that were strikingly similar to business applications. This led to the recognition that the term "administrative" applications was a more descriptive term than "business" applications, since both the private and public sectors "administer," while only the private sector does "business" in the commercial sense of the word.

Second, these simple classifications fell by the wayside with the establishment of other significant varieties of computer applications, such as process control, information retrieval, voice and message switching, and advanced technical applications such as computer-aided design and computer-assisted instruction (CAI).

Today, administrative applications are widely considered to be those that involve the use of computers for processing information in support of the operational, logistical, and functional activities performed by all organizations, and may be classified in a number of different ways. One is by organization type, e.g. banking, insurance, manufacturing, and government (which may be further subdivided into many different categories, such as defense, education, revenue, health services, etc.), among others. Another is by type of function (e.g. accounting, budgeting, payroll, property control, and many others).

This article describes the evolution and growth of administrative applications, the organization of data processing activity, and the increasingly complex administrative processing environment of the late 1990s and into the next millennium.

 

2) Study the word combinations:

the essence of the distinction - сущность различи€

substantial arithmetic operations Ц основные арифметические операции

business applications - бизнес-приложени€ (приложени€ дл€ деловой сферы)

internal computer speed - внутреннее быстродействие компьютера

crucial variable - ключева€ переменна€

versatility Ц многосторонность

premium transactions - сделки оплаты

pervasive evolution - повсеместна€ эволюци€

processing grew - обработка росла

large-scale government - крупномасштабное управление

strikingly similar - поразительно аналогичный

descriptive term Ц содержательный термин

commercial sense Ц коммерческий смысл

wayside - придорожна€ полоса, обочина

significant varieties of computer applications - значимые р€ды компьютерных приложений

information retrieval Ц сбор информации

computer-aided design - автоматизированное проектирование

computer-assisted instruction - автоматизированна€ инструкци€

payroll - платежна€ ведомость

revenue Ц доход

complex administrative processing environment - сложна€ административна€ среда обработки

 

3) Translate the text and answer the questions.

1) What information or ideas do you have about administrative applications?

2) How were applications of electronic computing classified?

3) What was the internal computer speed?

4) How were the two types of applications called?

5) What did the original two-category distinction no longer suffice with?

6)† What government agency is US Social Security Administration?

7) What is a CAI?

8) What are administrative applications widely considered being today?

9) Which processes does this article describe?

3) Translate the sentences from the text.

1) ¬нутреннее быстродействие компьютера было критически важно в научных приложени€х, тогда как скорость ввода/вывода и универсальность были критически важными в обработке деловой информации.

2) »нверс舆 матриц была "типичной" дл€ научных приложений, а обработка сделок оплаты страховых компаний была "типичной" дл€ деловых приложений.

3) Ќа заре эры электронной обработки приложени€ классифицировались просто как "научные" или "деловыеФ.

4) —егодн€ административные приложени€ широко рассматриваютс€, как приложени€, которые включают в себ€ использование компьютеров дл€ обработки информации в операционной, логической и функциональной де€тельности, выполн€емой всеми организаци€ми, и могут быть классифицированы на множество других путей.

5) Ёта стать€ описывает эволюцию и рост административных приложений, организацию де€тельности обработки данных, и возрастающую сложность административных задач в конце 1990-х и в следующем тыс€челетии.

6) Ёта проста€ классификаци€ более не использовалась с созданием других значимых типов компьютерных приложений, св€занных, например, с управлением процессами, сбором информации, коммутацией голоса и сообщений, и передовых технических приложений, таких, как автоматизированное проектирование и автоматизированна€ инструкци€.

††††††††††† 4) Complete the sentences using prepositions from the text.

1) The essence _____ distinction was that scientific applications involved substantial arithmetic operations _____ rather small volumes of data, whereas business applications involved modest arithmetic operations _____ substantial amounts of data.

2) With the passage _____ time and with the pervasive evolution _____ computer applications, the original two-category distinction no longer sufficed.

3) These simple classifications fell _____ the wayside with the establishment _____ other significant varieties of computer applications, such as process control, information retrieval, voice and message switching.

4) Today, administrative applications are widely considered to be those that involve the use ______ computers for processing information in support _____ the operational, logistical, and functional activities performed by all organizations, and may be classified ______ a number of different ways.

5) This article describes the evolution and growth ______ administrative applications, the organization of data processing activity, and the increasingly complex administrative processing environment ______ the late 1990s and into the next millennium.

5) Make sentences using these expressions:

Classified in, essence of, variable in, evolution of, similar to, considered to, performed by, type of, environment of.

6) Make a summary of this text.

 

Unit 4.

1) Read the text.

AIKEN, HOWARD

Howard Hathaway Aiken was born 8 March 1900, in Hoboken, NJ, and died 14 March 1973, in St Louis, MO. He grew up in Indianapolis, where he attended Arsenal Technical High School while working 12 hours a night at the Indianapolis Light and Heat Company. Upon graduation he went to work for the Madison (Wisconsin) Gas Company, a position that allowed him to go to the University of Wisconsin. He received his B.A. degree in 1923 and was immediately promoted to chief engineer at Madison Gas.

In 1935 he returned to study, first at the University of Chicago and then at Harvard. His doctoral thesis at Harvard, resulting in a Ph.D. in 1939, was on the theory of space charge conduction. The research required laborious calculations of nonlinear differential equations. This experience led him to investigate the possibility of performing these types of calculations with machine assistance. His thoughts on this subject led him in 1937 to circulate a memo entitled, "Proposed Automatic Calculating Machine" (reprinted in Spectrum, August 1964, 62-69).

Harvard was not the most likely environment to get support for this type of research. Fortunately, Harvard professors Ted Brown (Business) and Harlow Shapley (Astronomy) were impressed with his work, and both knew of the interest of Thomas Watson Sr. in projects of this nature. With their encouragement, and the knowl≠edge that IBM had the necessary technology, Aiken approached Watson. A contract was signed in 1939 whereby IBM would build the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (Harvard Mark I). The machine was running in 1944, and Aiken and Grace Hopper described it in a paper in Electrical Engineering (Vol. 65, 1946, 384-391, 449-454, 522-528; reprinted in Rendell, 1982).

The Mark I was followed by the Mark II (a relay machine built for the US Naval Proving Ground at Dahlgren, VA, and completed in 1946), the Mark III (an electronic machine, also for Dahlgren, completed in 1950), and the Mark IV (an electronic machine built for and delivered to the US Air Force in 1952). With the completion of Mark IV, Aiken got out of the business of building computers.

It is difficult to evaluate precisely the impact of Aiken's series of machines and the Harvard Computation Laboratory, which he founded. Fortunately, the documents are available to anyone interested. One need only look at the log books of the computation lab for this period to see the worldwide range of people who visited the laboratory. Another source of Aiken's work is the many publications in the "Annals of the Harvard Computation Laboratory" series. The Harvard catalog also provides clear evidence of the existence of courses in "computer science" a decade before the emergence of this program at most universities.

In 1947 and again in 1949 Aiken organized symposia on large-scale digital devices at Harvard. Programs from both meetings strongly reflect his hand and his philosophy at that time. Perhaps his most profound impact was in the environment he created at Harvard, which enabled the University to become a vital training ground for many people who became outstanding in the field. A perusal of those who did their doctoral dissertations under his direction is an excellent example of this impact.

Aiken retired from Harvard in 1961 and moved to Fort Lauderdale, FL, where he formed Aiken Industries. He also joined the faculty of the University of Miami as Distinguished Professor of Information Technology. In this latter position, he helped the University develop a computer science program and design a computing center.

His honors include honorary degrees (University of Wisconsin, Wayne State University, and Technische Hochschule, Darmstadt), prizes (Rochlitz Prize, Edison Medal of IEEE, the John Price Award of the Franklin Institute) as well as medals from both the US (Air Force and Navy for distinguished service) and other governments (Sweden, Belgium, France, and Spain).

Howard Aiken felt that he had to be continuously involved in challenging endeavors in order to stay alive both physically and intellectually. His career is a document of that creed. Some of his detractors accused him of living in the past, but nothing could be further from the truth. He was a man of rare vision, whose insights have had a profound effect on the entire computing profession.

 

2) Study the word combinations:

chief engineer - главный инженер

doctoral thesis - докторска€ диссертаци€

space charge conduction - космическа€ электропроводность платы

laborious calculations of nonlinear differential equations- трудоемкие вычислени€ нелинейных дифференциальных уравнений

differential equations - дифференциальные уравнени€

machine assistance - машинна€ помощь

to circulate a memo entitled Ц опубликовать сообщение, озаглавить

whereby - посредством чего

completion of - завершение

to evaluate precisely - оцениватьс€ точно

impact of Ц вли€ние

log books - регистрационные журналы

worldwide range - всемирный диапазон

clear evidence - €сное подтверждение

digital devices - цифровые устройства

to reflect Ц отражатьс€

profound impact - глубокое вли€ние

a training ground Ц тренировочна€ площадка

a perusal of - прочтение

challenging endeavors - вызывающие попытки

detractor - клеветник, очернитель

 

3) Translate the text and answer the questions.

1) Who is Aiken Howard?

2) Where and when did Howard receive his B.A. degree?

3) Where did he grow up?

4) Which universities did he study at?

5) What was his doctoral thesis resulting in a Ph.D. about?

6) What did his research require?

7) Who were impressed with his work?

8) What do you know about IBM?

9) When was a contract with IBM signed?

10) Who was the machine УHarvard Mark IФ described by?

11) Which of HowardТs machines was built for US Air Force?

12) Where can we find out about HowardТs series of machines?

13) What sources of HowardТs work do you know?

14) Where and when did Howard organize symposia on large-scale digital devices?

15) When did Howard retire?

16) Where did he form УAiken IndustriesФ?

17) Who did help him in his latter position?

18) What honorary degrees, prizes, and medals did he get?

19) What is his career?

 

4) Translate the sentences from the text.

1) ќн получил степень бакалавра в 1923 и немедленно был повышен до должности главного инженера в Madison Gas.

2) »сследование требовало кропотливых вычислений нелинейных дифференциальных уравнений.

3)  аталог √арварда также обеспечивает €сное подтверждение существовани€ курсов в "информатике"† за дес€тилетие до возникновени€ этой программы в других университетах.

4) Ёйкен ушел в отставку из √арварда в 1961 и перешел в Fort Lauderdale, где он сформировал Aiken Industries.

5) ќн был человеком редкого видень€, чьи взгл€ды имели важное значение дл€ всей сферы де€тельности, св€занной с компьютингом

6) ¬озможно, наиболее глубокое вли€ние Ёйкина было в среде, созданной им в √арварде, позволившей ”ниверситету стать живой тренировочной площадкой† дл€ многих людей, которые становились выдающимис€ в† этой области.

††††††††††† 5) Complete the sentences using prepositions from the text.

1) Upon graduation he went to work _____ the Madison (Wisconsin) Gas Company, a position that allowed him to go _____ the University of Wisconsin.

2) His doctoral thesis _____ Harvard, resulting _____ a Ph.D. in 1939, was on the theory of space charge conduction.

3) Harvard was not the most likely environment to get support _____ this type of research.

4) With the completion _____ Mark IV, Aiken got _________ the business of building computers.

5) The Harvard catalog also provides clear evidence of the existence _____ courses in "computer science" a decade before the emergence of this program _____ most universities.

6) Aiken retired _______ Harvard in 1961 and moved _____ Fort Lauderdale, FL, where he formed Aiken Industries.

7) He helped ______ the University develop a computer science program and design a computing center.

8) Howard Aiken felt that he had to be continuously involved _____ challenging endeavors _____ order to stay alive both physically and intellectually.

6) Make sentences using these expressions:

Work for, promote to, support for, be impressed with, delivered to, impact of, to be outstanding in, to retire from.

7) Make a summary of this text.

 

Unit 5

1) Read the text.

ALGOL

The driving concern in the development of the programming language Algol was to establish a notation for programs that would be a suitable carrier of algorithms and programs among computers of different types and capabilities.

Algol was the result of a collaboration of American and European committees. When the work was initiated in 1956, the computing scene in Europe was still dominated by one-of-a-kind computers, while in the USA the most commonly used computers were from manufacturers' standard series.

The problems of designing adequate programs were becoming acute everywhere. One approach to overcoming these problems was to replace the cumbersome machine languages by more convenient notations. The selection of such notations was guided by the applications of computers in science and engineering that dominated the early years of their invention, namely, solving the problems of mathematical analysis by techniques developed in numerical analysis. Numerical techniques build principally on operands of programs that are numerals in floating-point form. Thus programming notations came to be inspired by the algebraic notations that had a long tradition in mathematical analysis. Experiments with using such notations for programs were being made in many places.

Another approach to alleviating the problems of pro≠gramming was to organize collections of subroutines for common processes, which were parameterized so as to allow them to be included in complete programs. Libraries of subroutines had in fact long been established around computer installations.

The idea of establishing a programming notation that would be equally suitable in programming computers of different makes and types and for exchange of programs was first proposed in Europe in 1955, and became the subject of a working group of GAMM (Gesellschaft fiir angewandte Mathematik und Mech-anik). In 1957 this group joined a similar effort conducted within ACM. In June 1958 a GAMM-ACM working conference in Zurich worked out a proposal, later known as the Zurich Report or Algol 58, for an algebraic programming language designed for use in programming a variety of computers, as well as for describing algorithms in publications.

The Zurich Report gave rise to intense public discussion. As a result, a 13-person committee met in Paris in January 1960, where a new version of the language, Algol 60, was discussed and agreed upon. Some minor corrections to Algol 60 were published in the Revised Report on the Algorithmic Language Algol 60 in 1962.

The problems discussed and solved during the development of Algol were those that were imposed by the aim that the resulting notation would be suitable both for wide communication and for programming of many different computers. This implied the require≠ments that both the meaning of the computational processes described in the notation and the descrip≠tion of the notation itself would be clear and unambiguous, using forms of description that would make computer-independent sense and that would support implementation equivalently across a range of com≠puters of different makes and types.

An induced requirement was that, for reasons of expediency, the computational processes made available to the user of the notation had to allow effective description in brief terms. This requirement led to another, namely that mechanisms made available to the user of the notation had, as far as possible, to be describable in terms of a few rules that were generally valid, without exceptions.

The first proposal for the language, Algol 58, solved many of the problems. It introduced the idea that there would be three representations of the language (reference, publication, and hardware), such that the meaning of texts expressed in the language would only be defined in terms of the reference representation, while the typographical forms used in the publication and hardware representations were left to be chosen by users and implementers. Е

 

2) Study the word combinations:

collaboration of - сотрудничество

driving concern Ц движуща€ цель

initiated in Ц начат в

one-of-a-kind - необычный, своеобразный

dominated by Ц под власть

adequate programs - требуемые программы

acute Ц острый

cumbersome - громоздкий, объемистый

operands of programs - операнды программ

floating-point - плавающа€-точка

subroutines for - подпрограммы дл€

imposed by - нав€зан

computational processes - вычислительные процессы

unambiguous - однозначный

an induced requirement - порожденное требование

expediency - целесообразность

notation - нотаци€, система обозначений

to be describable in Ц иметь возможность быть описанным в

hardware - аппаратные средства

be defined in - определен в

 

3) Translate the text and answer the questions.

1) What is Algol?

2) What was Algol result of?

3) What were the problems of designing?

4) How were these problems solved?

5) What were numerical techniques build principally on?

6) What was another approach to alleviating the problems?

7) Where was exchange of programs first proposed?

8) What was the subject of a working group of GAMM?

9) How can you describe Algol 58?

10) Where and when was a new version Algol 60 discussed, agreed upon?

11) What did the first proposal for the Algol 58?

12) How were many of the problems solved?

††††††††††† 4) Translate the sentences from the text.

1) Algol €вл€лс€ результатом сотрудничества јмериканских и ≈вропейских комитетов.

2) ѕроблемы проектировани€ требуемых программ становились острыми везде.

3) ƒвижущей целью разработки €зыка программировани€ Algol было установление условных обозначений (операторов) дл€ программ, которые смогут быть подход€щими носител€ми алгоритмов, и программ среди компьютеров различных типов и возможностей.

4) “аким образом, операторы программировани€ были вдохновлены алгебраическими операторами, которые имели длинную традицию в математическом анализе.

5) Ѕиблиотеки подпрограмм фактически надолго установились среди компьютерных инсталл€ций.

6) ѕроблемы, обсужденные и решенные во врем€ разработки Algol, были вызваны целью - конечна€ нотаци€ должна быть пригодной как дл€ широкой св€зи, так и дл€ программировани€ многих разных компьютеров.

 

5) Complete the sentences using prepositions from the text.

1) One approach _____ overcoming these problems was to replace the cumbersome machine languages _____ more convenient notations.

2) Thus programming notations came to be inspired _____ the algebraic notations that had a long tradition _____ mathematical analysis. Experiments with using such notations for programs were being made _____ many places.

3) The selection of such notations was guided _____ the applications of computers _____ science and engineering that dominated the early years of their invention, namely, solving the problems of mathematical analysis _____ techniques developed in numerical analysis.

4) The idea _____ establishing a programming notation that would be equally suitable ___ programming computers of different makes and types and for exchange of programs was first proposed in Europe.

5) In 1957 this group joined ____ a similar effort conducted _____ ACM.

6) Some minor corrections _____ Algol 60 were published _____ the Revised Report on the Algorithmic Language Algol 60 in 1962.

7) This requirement led to another, namely that mechanisms made available ____ the user of the notation had, as far as possible, to be describable _____ terms of a few rules that were generally valid, without exceptions.

6) Make sentences using these expressions:

A notation for, be dominated by, be initiated in, scene in, be guided by, analysis by, be developed in, to be inspired by, suitable in, exchange of, be proposed in, be conducted within, corrections to, proposal for, be defined in, to be chosen by,† to be describable in.

7) Make a summary of this text.

 

Unit 6.

1) Read the text.

ALGORITHMICS

Algorithmics is the systematic study of algorithms Ч how to devise them, describe them, validate them, and compare their relative merits. As the study of algo≠rithms, algorithmics might be deemed a synonym for computer science. And, to be sure, "algorithmics" appears in the names of an increasing number of computer science courses, journals, books, research groups, and consulting firms. However, the term is perhaps still used primarily by mathematicians and mathematics educators, for whom it connotes an approach to mathematics where the study of the calculations by which answers are obtained is as important as determining that answers exist. This is quite different from the approach to mathematics during most of the twentieth century. At the school level, there was much doing of algorithms, but in a rote way. At the university level, the emphasis was on the existence and structure of mathematical objects. But now, with computers, such large and complicated problems are tackled that it is natural to be more systematic about the methodology for computing answers. Thus, algorithmics means not only being explicit about the use of algorithms to do mathemat≠ics (for instance, by using algorithmic language (i.e. pseudocode) to describe solution methods), but it also means regarding algorithms themselves as worthy objects of mathematical study.

Algorithmics is usually divided into three parts: design, verification, and analysis. Design is the process of creating algorithms and the study of good creation approaches (for instance, reducing to smaller cases and top-down planning). Verification is proving algo≠rithms correct; the primary technique is mathematical induction, often expressed in terms of loop invariants. Analysis is the determination of the efficiency of an algorithm (how long it takes to run as a function of input size, or how much memory is required) and, when more than one algorithm is known to solve a problem, a comparison of their relative efficiencies. Better yet, but usu≠ally quite difficult, is to determine or at least bound the optimal efficiency for any method that solves the problem at hand. Determining the optimum over all algorithms for a problem is called determining the computational complexity of the problem. Е

 

2) Study the word combinations

to devise Ц изобретать, разрабатывать

validate - провер€ть достоверность; подтверждать правильность

relative merits - относительные достоинства

to be deemed - считатьс€

it connotes - означает

a rote way Ц путем зубрежки

the emphasis - акцент

be tackled Ц быть подн€тым, быть начатым

to be explicit - быть €вным, вы€вл€ть

regarding - относительно; касательно

worthy - соответствующий, подобающий, достойный

verification - проверка правильности выполнени€ операции

top-down - нисход€щий; сверху вниз

loop invariants - инвариант цикла

efficiencies Ц эффективность, производительность

bound - граница; предел, предельное значение

computational complexity - вычислительна€ сложность число шагов или арифметических операций, требуемых дл€ решени€ вычислительной проблемы

3) Translate the text and answer the questions.

1) How can you describe Algorithmics?

2) What might algorithmics be as the study of algorithmics?

3) What differences were at the school lever and university level of the term УalgorithmicsФ? And now?

4) What does algorithmics mean?

5) How many parts is algorithmics usually divided?

6) What do you know about design?

7) What is verification?

8) How can you explain and analysis?

4) Translate the sentences from the text.

1) Ёто отличаетс€ от подхода к математике в течение большей части двадцатого столети€.

2) Ќа университетском уровне акцент был на существовании и структуре математических объектов.

3) јлгоритмирование обычно раздел€етс€ на три части: проектирование, проверка и анализ.

4) ќпределение оптимального алгоритма решени€ задачи среди всех алгоритмов называетс€ определением вычислительной сложности задачи.

5) јлгоритмирование - систематическое исследование алгоритмов Ц св€зано с разработкой алгоритмов, их† описанием, подтверждением и сравнением их относительных достоинств.

6) “еперь с по€влением компьютеров такие большие и сложные проблемы решаютс€ легче, естественнее и систематичнее в смысле† методологии вычислени€ ответов.

5) Complete the sentences using prepositions from the text.

1) This is quite different _____ the approach to mathematics _____ most of the twentieth century.

2) With computers, such large and complicated problems are tackled that it is natural to be more systematic ______ the methodology for computing answers.

3) Verification is proving algo≠rithms correct; the primary technique is mathematical induction, often expressed _____ terms of loop invariants.

4) As the study of algo≠rithms, algorithmics might be deemed a synonym _____ computer science.

5) Analysis is the determination _____ the efficiency of an algorithm and, when more than one algorithm is known to solve a problem, a comparison _____ their relative efficiencies.

6) Make sentences using these expressions:

Be deemed for, appears in, approach to, different from, systematic about, be explicit about, divide into, expressed in, comparison of, function of, at hand.

††††††††††† Unit 7.

1) Read the text.

Analog Computer: The End of an Era

Analog and hybrid computers were generally phased out during the late 1970s. Most users realized they faced the end of an era, brought on by the ever-increasing speed, power, and memory capacity of digital computers. By the late 1970s it was obvious that soon digital solutions would be fasterЧand considerably more accurate and convenient to useЧthan even high-speed analog or hybrid computers were. The old axiom that "... when digital computers are programmed to solve equations as fast as analogs, they are less accurate; and when programmed to be as accurate, digital computers are much slower," was no longer true.

The paradigm shift occurred with the advent of digital computer programs and special programming lan≠guages. These made it possible to use Kelvin's method of successive integrations on a digital computer. The Continuous System Modeling Program (CSMP) for IBM computers, the SIMSCRIPT language and a number of others opened a new era and allowed users to solve sets of differential equations with ease and accuracy.

One advance that made this possible was the develop≠ment of integration algorithms that delivered accurate numerical solutions. With these methods complex sets of differential equations are now solved as effortlessly and accurately as arithmetic equations so that there is a very limited market for electronic analog computers to solve such problems. Thus, the development has, in a way, come full circle. Lord KelvinТs "feedback" meth≠od of successive numerical integrations, pioneered in 1876, is now in general use on digital computers but with little recognition given to its deep significance.

 

2) Study the word combinations:

to phase out - постепенно прекращать, свертывать

ever-increasing - возрастающий

convenient - удобный

obvious - очевидный, €вный, €сный

old axiom - стара€ аксиома

equations - уравнени€

paradigm shift - изменение парадигмы

advent of digital computer Ц наступление, приход цифровой вычислительной машины

successive integrations - последующа€ интеграци€

effortlessly - без усилий; без напр€жени€

full circle - полный круг

feedback - обратна€ св€зь

pioneered in - впервые исследован в

significance Ц значение

 

3) Translate the text and answer the questions.

1) †What differences are between analog and digital computer?

2) †When did analog and hybrid comps started to be phased out?

3) †What was obvious about digital solutions by the late 1970s?

4) †How true was old axiom?

5) †What did it make possible to use KelvinТs method of successive integrations on a digital comp?

6) †Which programs, languages did it make open a new era and allow users to solve sets of differential equations with case and accuracy?

7) When was Lord KelvinТs УfeedbackФ method of successive numerical integrations pioneered ?

4) Translate the sentences from the text.

1)   Ѕольшинство пользователей пон€ли, что они сто€ли перед концом эры, принесенным посто€нно увеличивающейс€ скоростью, мощностью и вместимостью пам€ти цифровых компьютеров.

2)   »зменение парадигмы произошло с по€влением программ компьютера и специальных €зыков программировани€.

3)   ѕрорыв, который сделал это возможным - развитие алгоритмов интегрировани€, которые давали точные числовые решени€.

4)   ¬ конце 1970-х гг. аналоговые и аналого-цифровые компьютеры постепенно выводились из обращени€.

5)   ѕрограмма ћоделировани€ Ќепрерывной —истемы (CSMP) дл€ IBM компьютеров, €зык SIMSCRIPT и множество других открыли новую эру и позволили пользовател€м решать системы дифференциальных уравнений с легкостью и точностью.

5) Complete the sentences using prepositions from the text.

1)    Most users realized they faced the end of an era, brought ____ by the ever-increasing speed, power, and memory capacity ____ digital computers.

2)    The paradigm shift occurred _____ the advent _____ digital computer programs and special programming lan≠guages.

3)    Analog and hybrid computers were generally phased _____ during the late 1970s.

4)    One advance that made this possible was the develop≠ment _____ integration algorithms that delivered accurate numerical solutions.

5)      Lord KelvinТs "feedback" meth≠od _____ successive numerical integrations, pioneered in 1876, is now in general use _____ digital computers but with little recognition given to its deep significance.

6) Make sentences using these expressions:

Phase out, bring on, capacity of, advent of, method of.

 

†Unit 8.

1) Read the text.

APPLE COMPUTER, INC. Apple's Beginnings

Twenty years after it was founded, Apple is no longer the major power it once was in personal computing. Apple was the first mainstream vendor of personal computers and is still an important player, setting the pace for ease of use and graphical interfaces, but Apple has become a niche player. The company was born out of the desire of two spirited innovators, Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs, who wanted to bring computing power to ordinary people.

With the microprocessor, the semiconductor industry had provided the compact, inexpensive electronic brain needed to build a personal-sized computer. But it was individual computer enthusiasts, not the estab≠lished mainframe and minicomputer companies which took the next steps. Fascinated with the computers they designed and programmed by day, many young engineers longed to have their own computers on which to work and play at night. They avidly read the handful of available hobbyist maga≠zines, formed clubs, and swapped ideas.

Stephen G. Wozniak was a regular attendee of the Homebrew Computer Club that began meeting in 1975 in Menio Park, CA, at the northern edge of what was already called Silicon Valley. Wozniak had become enthralled with computers in high school and had dropped out of the engineering program at the Uni≠versity of California, Berkeley, to work for Hewlett-Packard, a manufacturer of calculators and minicom≠puters. It was at a Homebrew meeting that Wozniak heard about the first personal computers that were being offered as mail-order kits.

By mid-1976, Wozniak, 26, had written a Basic programming language interpreter for a new micro≠processor from MOS Technology, the 6502, and de≠signed a computer to run it. Wozniak proudly passed out photocopies of his design to Homebrew friends and helped them build their own machines from the plans.

Steven P. Jobs, age 21 in 1976, shared Wozniak's pas≠sion for computers. The two had collaborated on sev≠eral electronics projects, including creating the video game Breakout for Atari, Inc., where Jobs worked. Convinced of the marketability of Wozniak's design, Jobs persuaded his friend to sell the Apple I kits to other hobbyists.

They sold Jobs's Volkswagen van and Wozniak's programmable calculator to raise enough money to get started. Jobs then landed an order for 50 Apple I computers from one of the first computer retail stores in the country, and, on the strength of that order, the two young men secured credit at an electronic parts house. In the garage of Jobs's parents' home in Cupertino, CA, Apple Computer went into business.

"I had wanted a computer my whole lifeЧthat was the big thing in my life," Wozniak remembers. "All of a sudden I realized that microprocessors were cheap enough to let me build one myself. Steve [Jobs] went a little further. Steve saw it as a product that you could actually deliver and sell, and someone else could use."

Like all early personal computers, the Apple I was designed for experts who could put it together and write their own programs. But Jobs had a vision for Apple Computer that went far beyond the hobbyist market. He sought advice on realizing his goals from successful industry figures, such as Nolan Bushnell, founder of Atari; Don Valentine, a venture capitalist; Regis McKenna, who owned a rising Silicon Valley advertising and public relations agency; and A. C. "Mike" Markkula, who, at age 33, had retired from a lucrative marketing career at Intel.

Wozniak began designing a second computer that would be technically far superior to the Apple I, incor≠porating a keyboard, power supply, and the ability to generate color graphics, and to use the Basic program≠ming language. Convinced that this productЧthe Apple IIЧwould spark demand for personal computers beyond the hobbyist market, Mike Markkula wrote a business plan for the young company and then invested in it. He officially joined Apple when it incorporated in January 1977, and has since served in various exec≠utive positions, including president. Apple blossorned during that first year. It introduced the Apple II to rave reviews at the first West Coast Computer Faire. Markkula signed up dealers across the country to sell the Apple II. Regis McKenna's agency helped establish an immediate presence for Apple with an eye-catching rainbow logo, ads placed in national consumer publi≠cations, and a public relations campaign that leveraged Apple's "American dream" beginnings. An infusion of $3 million in venture capital gave Apple an enormous advantage over many of its struggling competitors. Apple finished its first fiscal year with $774,000 in sales and a $42,000 profit.

 

2) Study the word combinations:

mainstream vendor Ц господствующий, лидирующий продавец

the pace for ease† - темп дл€ непринужденности

spirited innovators Ц энергичные, талантливые новаторы

the semiconductor industry - промышленность полупроводников

mainframe - универсальна€ Ё¬ћ, мэйнфрэйм

avidly Ц страстно

hobbyist magazines Ц любительские журналы

swap ideas - обмениватьс€ иде€ми

attendee Ц посетитель

become enthralled with Ц приходить в восторг от

dropped out Ц покинувший

mail-order kits - комплекты заказа по почте

collaborated on - сотрудничавший в

convinced of - убежденный в

marketability - конкурентоспособность

van - фургон

a venture capitalist - капиталист предпри€ти€, вкладчик капитала в рискованные предпри€ти€

lucrative marketing - прибыльный маркетинг

incorporating Ц включающий

spark demand Ц возросший спрос

blossomed Ц расцветен

to rave reviews - взбудоражить обзоры

presence for - присутствие дл€

an eye-catching rainbow logo Цлоготип в виде привлекательной эмблемы радуги

campaign that leveraged - кампани€, котора€ усиливала

infusion of Ц вливание

an enormous advantage - огромное преимущество

struggling competitors - борющиес€ конкуренты

 

3) Translate the text and answer the questions.

1)   What do you know about Apple computers?

2)   How was the Apple Company born?

3)   Who is Steve Wozniak?

4)   Who was a regular attendee of the Homebrew Computer Club?

5)   Can you tell us anything about Hewlett-Packard?

6)   What did Wozniak have written by mid-1976?

7)   †How old was Steven P. Job when he shared WozniakТs passion for comps?

8)   What did they do in order to raise enough money to get starter?

9)   Where did Apple Computer go into business?

10)   Who was Apple I designed for?

11)   Who did write a business plan for the young company?

12)   When did Mike Marcella officially join Apple?

13)   What did Marcella do in order to sell the Apple II?

14)   How much dollars did Apple finish itТs first fiscal year with?†

4) Translate the sentences from the text.

1)     Apple было первым господствующим продавцом персональных компьютеров и - все еще важный игрок, устанавливающий темп дл€ простоты использовани€ и графических интерфейсов, но Apple стало игроком ниши.

2)     ќчарованные компьютерами, которые они проектировали и программировали днем, много молодых инженеров стремились иметь свои собственные компьютеры, чтобы работать и играть на них ночью.

3)     Wozniak гордо раздавал фотокопии своего проекта ƒоморощенным друзь€м и помог им строить их собственные машины из планов.

4)      ак† и все ранние персональные компьютеры, Apple I был разработан дл€ экспертов, которые могли соединить их вместе и написать собственные программы.

5)     — микропроцессором, промышленность полупроводников обеспечила компактный, недорогой электронный мозг, который был необходим дл€ построени€ компьютера персонального размера.

6)     ќни страстно читали горстку доступных любительских журналов, формировали клубы и обменивались иде€ми.

7)     »менно на встрече ƒоморощенных ”озниак услышал о первых персональных компьютерах, которые предлагались как комплекты заказа по почте.

5)† Complete the sentences using prepositions from the text.

1.     The company was born _____ the desire of two spirited innovators, Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs, who wanted to bring computing power _____ ordinary people.

2.     Wozniak had become enthralled _____ computers in high school and had dropped _____ of the engineering program at the Uni≠versity of California.

3.     Steven P. Jobs, age 21 in 1976, shared Wozniak's pas≠sion _____ computers.

4.       Convinced of the marketability ____ Wozniak's design, Jobs persuaded his friend to sell the Apple I kits ____ other hobbyists.

5.     Jobs then landed an order _____ 50 Apple I computers from one of the first computer retail stores in the country.

6.     Jobs had a vision ____ Apple Computer that went far beyond _____ the hobbyist market.

7.     He officially joined ____ Apple when it incorporated in January 1977, and has since served _____ various exec≠utive positions, including president.

8.     Marcella signed _____ dealers across the country to sell the Apple II.

9.     The two had collaborated _____ sev≠eral electronics projects, including creating the video game Breakout for Atari, Inc., where Jobs worked.

6) Make sentences using these expressions: